Historic Landmark CommissionApril 3, 2024

5.1 - C14H-2024-0016 - 3110 West Ave — original pdf

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City of Austin - Historic Preservation Office Historic Zoning Application Packet A. APPLICATION FOR HISTORIC ZONING PROJECT INFORMATION: DEPARTMENTAL USE ONLY APPLICATION DATE:__________________ FILE NUMBER(S) _____________________________________________ TENTATIVE HLC DATE: TENTATIVE PC or ZAP DATE:_________________ TENTATIVE CC DATE:_________________ CASE MANAGER _______________________________ APPLICATION ACCEPTED BY:________________________________________ CITY INITIATED: YES / NO ROLLBACK: YES/NO BASIC PROJECT DATA: 1. OWNER’S NAME:________________________________________________________________________________ 2. PROJECT NAME:________________________________________________________________________________ 3. PROJECT STREET ADDRESS (or Range): __________________________________________________________ Robin Abrams Russell and Jean Lee House 3110 West Avenue Travis 78705 ZIP__________________________ COUNTY:______________________________________ IF PROJECT ADDRESS CANNOT BE DEFINED ABOVE: LOCATED ____________ FRONTAGE FEET ALONG THE N. S. E. W. (CIRCLE ONE) SIDE OF ______________________________________ (ROAD NAME PROPERTY FRONTS ONTO), WHICH IS APPROXIMATELY _______________________________________ DISTANCE FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH _________________________________________ CROSS STREET. AREA TO BE REZONED: 4. ACRES _________________ 0.2377 (OR) SQ.FT._______________ 5. ZONING AND LAND USE INFORMATION: EXISTING ZONING EXISTING USE SF-3-CO-NP __________ __________ __________ Residence __________ __________ __________ TRACT# (IF MORE THAN 1) ________ ________ ________ ACRES / SQ. FT. PROPOSED USE PROPOSED ZONING 0.2377 _______________ _______________ _______________ Residence _____________ _____________ _____________ SF-3-H-CO-NP ____________ ____________ ____________ RELATED CURRENT CASES: 6. ACTIVE ZONING CASE? 7. RESTRICTIVE COVENANT? (YES / NO) 8. SUBDIVISION? 9. SITE PLAN? (YES / NO) (YES / NO) (YES / NO) NO NO NO NO FILE NUMBER: ______________________________________ FILE NUMBER: ______________________________________ FILE NUMBER: ______________________________________ FILE NUMBER: ______________________________________ Adopted December 2012 6 City of Austin - Historic Preservation Office Historic Zoning Application Packet PROPERTY DESCRIPTION (SUBDIVISION REFERENCE OR METES AND BOUNDS): 10a. SUBDIVISION REFERENCE: Name: _____________________________________________________________ Div D Oakwood Block(s) ______________________ Lot(s )___________________ Outlot(s) _____________________ Lot 55 & Lot 56 Plat Book: _________________________________Page Number:_________________________________ OLT 72 & 75 10b. METES AND BOUNDS (Attach two copies of certified field notes if subdivision reference is not available or zoning includes partial lots) DEED REFERENCE CONVEYING PROPERTY TO PRESENT OWNER AND TAX PARCEL I.D.: 11. VOLUME:_______________PAGE:______________ TAX PARCEL I.D. NO. _____________________________ 211128 12170 1592 OTHER PROVISIONS: 12. IS PROPERTY IN A ZONING COMBINING DISTRICT / OVERLAY ZONE? YES / NO YES TYPE OF COMBINING DIST/OVERLAY ZONE (NCCD,NP, etc)____________________________________ NP 13. LOCATED IN A LOCAL OR NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT? YES / NO NO 14. IS A TIA REQUIRED? YES / NO (NOT REQUIRED IF BASE ZONING IS NOT CHANGING) NO TRIPS PER DAY:_____________________________ TRAFFIC SERIAL ZONE(S):_________________ ________________ _________________ ________________ OWNERSHIP TYPE: 15. ___SOLE ___COMMUNITY PROPERTY ___PARTNERSHIP ___CORPORATION ____TRUST X If ownership is other than sole or community property, list individuals/partners/principals below or attach separate sheet. OWNER INFORMATION: 16. OWNER CONTACT INFORMATION SIGNATURE:_______________________________________ NAME: _______________________________________ FIRM NAME:___________________________________________ TELEPHONE NUMBER: ______________________ STREET ADDRESS: _______________________________________________________________________________ CITY: ______________________________ STATE: _______________ ZIP CODE: ____________________________ _____________________________________________________________ EMAIL ADDRESS: 3112 West Avenue Robin Abrams 512 657 2427 78705 Austin TX AGENT INFORMATION (IF APPLICABLE): 17. AGENT CONTACT INFORMATION SIGNATURE:______________________________________ NAME: ________________________________________ FIRM NAME:_____________________________________________TELEPHONE NUMBER: ___________________ STREET ADDRESS:_______________________________________________________________________________ CITY: ______________________________ STATE: _______________ ZIP CODE: ___________________________ CONTACT PERSON:_____________________________________ TELEPHONE NUMBER: __________________ EMAIL ADRESS: _________________________________________________________________________________ Adopted December 2012 7 City of Austin - Historic Preservation Office Historic Zoning Application Packet D. SUBMITTAL VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION AUTHORIZATION SUBMITTAL VERICATION My signature attests to the fact that the attached application package is complete and accurate to the best of my knowledge. I understand that proper City staff review of this application is dependent upon the accuracy of the information provided and that any inaccurate or inadequate information provided by me/my firm/etc., may delay the proper review of this application. INSPECTION AUTHORIZATION As owner or authorized agent, my signature authorizes staff to visit and inspect the property for which this application is being submitted. PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT NAME BELOW SIGNATURE AND INDICATE FIRM REPRESENTED, IF APPLICABLE. 8 November 2023 __________________________________________________ Signature Date Robin Abrams __________________________________________________ Name (Typed or Printed) __________________________________________________ Firm (If applicable) PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT NAME BELOW SIGNATURE AND INDICATE FIRM REPRESENTED, IF APPLICABLE. ___________________________________________________ Date Signature 8 November 2023 ___________________________________________________ Robin Abrams Name (Typed or Printed) ___________________________________________________ Firm (If applicable) Adopted December 2012 8 City of Austin - Historic Preservation Office Historic Zoning Application Packet E. ACKNOWLEDGMENT FORM concerning Subdivision Plat Notes, Deed Restrictions, Restrictive Covenants and / or Zoning Conditional Overlays Robin Abrams I, ________________________________________ have checked restrictions, (Print name of applicant) for subdivision plat notes, deed restrictive covenants and/or zoning conditional overlays prohibiting certain uses and/or requiring certain development restrictions i.e. height, access, screening etc. on this property, located at 3110 West Avenue, Austin, TX 78705 ______________________________________________________________________________________ (Address or Legal Description) ______________________________________________________________________________________ If a conflict should result with the request I am submitting to the City of Austin due to subdivision plat notes, deed restrictions, restrictive covenants and/or zoning conditional overlays it will be my responsibility to resolve it. I also acknowledge that I understand the implications of use and/or development restrictions that are a result of a subdivision plat notes, deed restrictions, restrictive covenants and/or zoning conditional overlays. I understand that if requested, I must provide copies of any and all subdivision plat notes, deed restrictions, restrictive covenants and/or zoning conditional overlay information which may apply to this property. _______________________________________ (Applicant's signature) 8 November 2023 ________________________________ (Date) Adopted December 2012 9 City of Austin - Historic Preservation Office Historic Zoning Application Packet F. 1: Historical Documentation - Deed Chronology Deed Research for (fill in address) __3110 West Avenue______________________________ List Deeds chronologically, beginning with earliest transaction first and proceeding through present ownership. The first transaction listed should date at least back to when the original builder of any historic structures on the site first acquired the property (i.e., should pre-date the construction of any buildings/structures on the site). Please use the format delineated below. For each transaction please include: name of Grantor/Grantee, date of transaction, legal description involved, price, and volume/page number of deed records. If there is a mechanic's lien please copy the entire document. Transaction Ada C. Penn to C. F. Gibson 12/30/1927 $8,500 C. F. Gibson and Stella Gibson to E. R. Simmons and Sallejo Simmons 12/06/1943 $5000 E. R. Simmons and Sallejo Simmons to W. K. Jennings and Maude Jennings 09/30/1944 $6000 W.K. Jennings and Maude Jennings to Thomas Blackwell and Ernestine Blackwell 03/27/1946 $10,010 Vol./Page Vol. 409 pp 483-484 Vol 733 pp 33-35 Vol. 749 pp 30-32 Vol. 783 pp564-566 Thomas Blackwell and Ernestine Blackwell to Russell Lee and Jean Lee 03/03/1948 $11,000 Vol. 899 pp 380-383 Jean Lee to Charitable Holdings 12/10/1993 Donated Gift Charitable Holdings to Robin Abrams 04/21/94 $148,000 Vol 2080 p 979 Vol 2170 pp 594 Adopted December 2012 10 City of Austin - Historic Preservation Office Historic Zoning Application Packet F. 2: Historical Documentation - Occupancy History Occupancy Research for (fill in address) ___________________________ 3110 West Avenue Using City Directories available at the Austin History Center or other information available, please provide a chronology of all occupants of the property from its construction to the present. For commercial property, please provide residential information on business owner as well. Year Occupant Name and Reference Source PLEASE SEE ATTACHED CHRONOLOGY Adopted December 2012 11 The Jean & Russell Lee House 3110 West Avenue CHRONOLOGY 1902 1903 1909 1913/1914 1914 1916 1918 1920 1920 1922 1924 1924 1926 1927 Robert & Ada C. Penn purchase land that would become Oakwood Subdivision Oakwood Re-Subdivision created, “Penn Place” (Source: Original Plat Map) Judge Penn dies, Ada Penn begins to design and build homes in Penn Place 3110 West Avenue built Charles L. Black, AQorney, renter (source: 1914 City Directory) Charles L. Black, AQorney, renter(source: 1916 City Directory) No tenant listed (source: 1918 City Directory) E. F. Dahoney, Clerk, and Margaret Dahoney, and son, renters (source: 1920 City Directory) Ada Penn uses 3110 as collateral for a $4000 promissory note, indebted to Mr. Charles H. Hill, at 7% interest, payable to J.W. McLaughlin. (source: Travis County Deed Records) R. W. Carr and Elizabeth Carr, renters. Dahoney son has moved to student rooms elsewhere (source: 1922 City Directory) Ada Penn transfers the debt on 3110 to Mr. Ike D. White, to be paid off to J. W. McLaughlin, three years hence, at 7% interest. (source: Travis County Deed Records) C. Frank Gibson, Assistant AQorney General, and Stella Gibson, renters Eugene Alexander is listed as renter of rear of premises. (source: 1924 City Directory) Promissory note using 3110 as collateral transferred from Chas Hill to Louise Cadwell. (source: Travis County Deed Records) C. Frank Gibson and Stella Gibson, renters (source: 1927 City Directory) 1930 – 31 1927 1929 1932 1935 1937 1939 1940 1941 1942 1947 1949 1944-5 Promissory Note using 3110 owned by Louise Cadwell is paid off through a transfer of the lot immediately south of 3110, plus $1.00. (Travis County Deed Records) C. Frank Gibson and Stella Gibson, owners. Mr. Gibson is listed as an aQorney with Smith & Gibson in the LiQlefield Building. (source: 1929 City Directory) C. Frank Gibson and Stella Gibson, owners. James P. Gibson (Broker) and Jesse Gibson also listed as residents. Height of Great Depression. (source: 1930-31 City Directory) C. Frank Gibson, aQorney, and Stella Gibson, owners. James P. Gibson now listed as an aQorney. Gibsons pracfcing in different offices. (source: 1932 City Directory) C. Frank Gibson, aQorney and Stella Gibson, owners, Mr. Gibson now referred to as Carl Gibson. (source: 1935 City Directory) Carl Gibson and Stella Gibson appear to have moved to premises on College Avenue, no resident listed at 3110. (source: 1937 City Directory) 3110 sfll listed as owned by Gibson, Frank, but vacant. (source: 1937 City Directory) Vacant. Both Gibsons now working at Gibson & Gibson AQorneys. (source: 1940 City Directory) Coley C. White listed as renter, no profession given, but note indicates son is stafoned at Camp Mabry. (source: 1941 City Directory) Blaust, Henry H., Physician, renter. Gibsons now resident at Shade Lane home. (source: 1942 City Directory) Ed. R. Simmons, Assistant State AQorney General, Sally Simmons and a child, Owners. (source: 1944-45 City Directory) Thomas Blackwell, Student at UT Ausfn, and Ernesfne Blackwell, Owners. (source: 1947 City Directory) Russell Lee, Photographer, and Jean Lee, Owners. Thomas Blackwell listed as Psychologist on Park Blvd. (source: 1949 City Directory) Jean Lee donated 3110 to Charitable Holdings of Ausfn, the largest single unrestricted gik to the Ausfn Community Foundafon at that fme. (ACF NewsleQer, Spring 1994) Robin Abrams purchased 3110 from Charitable Holdings and is the current owner. Robert E. Lee Elementary School in Ausfn renamed Russell Lee Elementary. (KUT Public Radio News, May 24, 2016. 1993 1994 2003 Intake Division January 5, 2024 3110 West Avenue Maureen Meredith, Senior Planner Planning Dept. (512) 974-2695 Memorandum To: From: Date: Subject: The above property is located within the Central Austin Combined Neighborhood Plan (West University). The applicant proposes a zoning change from SF-3-CO-NP to SF-3-H-CO-NP. Current land use on FLUM: Single Family. Proposed land use through proposed zoning change: Single Family. A plan amendment is NOT required. Please call me if you have any questions. Maureen Zoning Map – Single Family land use FLUM Map Permitting and Development Center | 6310 Wilhelmina Delco Drive, Austin, TX 78752 | (512) 978-4000 Property Profile Report General Information Location: Parcel ID: Grid: 3110 WEST AVE 0217020305 MJ25 Planning & Zoning *Right click hyperlinks to open in a new window. Future Land Use (FLUM): Single Family, Transportation Regulating Plan: No Regulating Plan SF-3-CO-NP C14-04-0021 C14H-2024-0016 040826-57 040902-58 19990225-070b Zoning: Zoning Cases: Zoning Ordinances: Zoning Overlays: Neighborhood Plan: Infill Options: ADU Approximate Area Reduced Parking Residential Design Standards: LDC/25-2-Subchapter F Selected Sign Ordinances WEST UNIVERSITY: HERITAGE Small Lot Amnesty Infill Option, Parking Placement/Imp Cover Design Option, Front Porch Design Option, Garage Placement Design Option Neighborhood Restricted Parking Areas: Central Austin Neighborhoods Planning Area Committee, West Universtiy NPA Mobile Food Vendors: Historic Landmark: -- -- Urban Roadways: Yes Zoning Guide The Guide to Zoning provides a quick explanation of the above Zoning codes, however, the Land Development Information Services provides general zoning assistance and can advise you on the type of development allowed on a property. Visit Zoning for the description of each Base Zoning District. For official verification of the zoning of a property, please order a Zoning Verification Letter. General information on the Neighborhood Planning Areas is available from Neighborhood Planning. Imagery Map No No No No No No Environmental Fully Developed Floodplain: FEMA Floodplain: Austin Watershed Regulation Areas: URBAN Watershed Boundaries: Waller Creek Creek Buffers: Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone: Edwards Aquifer Recharge Verification Zone: Erosion Hazard Zone Review Buffer: Political Boundaries Jurisdiction: AUSTIN FULL PURPOSE Council District: 9 County: TRAVIS School District: Austin ISD Community Registry: Austin Independent School District, Austin Lost and Found Pets, Austin Neighborhoods Council, CANPAC (Central Austin Neigh Plan Area Committee), Central Austin Community Development Corporation, Friends of Austin Neighborhoods, Friends of Heritage, Heritage Neighborhood Association, Homeless Neighborhood Association, Neighborhood Empowerment Foundation, Preservation Austin, SELTexas, Shoal Creek Conservancy, Sierra Club, Austin Regional Group Zoning Map Vicinity Map The Information on this report has been produced by the City of Austin as a working document and is not warranted for any other use. 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AlteraBons to the house to adapt to modern living and the financial realiBes of owning a house in central AusBn have been undertaken with utmost care, are intenBonally deferenBal to the original house, and are reversible. It has historical associaBon with significant persons: It was built by Ada C. Penn, was adjacent to and shares a driveway with the Penn House (3112 West Avenue). The two houses were a single estate unBl approximately 1929 (and are now again owned by one family). NaBonally renowned photographer Russell Lee and Texas poliBcal strategist Jean Lee occupied the house between 1949 and 1993. The house has community value in that it contributes to the character, image and idenBty of the Heritage Neighborhood, as one of the original houses built by Mrs. Penn. The City of AusBn Historic Building Survey Report for North Central AusBn recommends designaBng 3110 as a local landmark. 3110 West Avenue was built by Ada C. Penn in 1913. Mrs. Penn was the widow of Judge Robert Penn. The Penn family purchased their home at 3112 West Avenue in 1902, and soon aVer began to acquire addiBonal surrounding land. Their home, known as Heritage House, is among the oldest homes in AusBn. The Penns created a subdivision (a re-subdivision of the Oakwood Subdivision, someBmes referred to as the Penn Subdivision) in 1903. Judge Penn unexpectedly died in 1909, leaving Mrs. Penn and their nine children in financial straits. The re-subdivision map dated 1903 (image provided in Supplemental InformaBon pdf) indicates that the Penns intended to create a neighborhood surrounding their home. Forced into acBon by financial pressures, Mrs. Penn trained at night school as a draVsperson and designed a large number of the homes built on lots in the subdivision between 1910 and 1920. Among the first houses built was a two-story bungalow at 3110 West Avenue in 1913-14, which Mrs. Penn retained as a home for extended family, and later used as a rental property1. 3110 1 “[Her niece] recounted that Ada….kept her children and their families close, as five Penn families lived in the houses built by Ada in the blocks surrounding her home.” City of Austin Historic Building Report for North Central Austin, p. 135. 1 and the Penn home at 3112 shared a driveway (and sBll do), which may have been one reason to keep it under her control. The house appears on the 1922 Sanborn Map to be sharing one lot with 3108 West Avenue (image provided in Supplemental InformaBon), which explains how 3110 came to be built on porBons of two separate lots. Mrs. Penn leased the home to a variety of tenants, including, according to the City Directory, two Assistant A^orney Generals, as well as a doctor and a psychologist. Mrs. Penn used the home as collateral for a $4000 loan that was transferred at one point, and then se^led through the sale for $1 of the house which shared the lot with 3110, 3108 West Avenue. The author of this narraBve met a woman many years ago (name unknown) who grew up in the 1940’s in the duplex at 3106 West Avenue. She recalled that everyone living adjacent to the alley behind the houses was related except for her family, and that it didn’t ma^er which house you went to for dinner, the back doors were always open. She said that the neighborhood children created a string-and-Bn-can communicaBon system that stretched down the alley behind all the houses. Having se^led the debt on 3110, Mrs. Penn sold the house in 1929 to Mr. C. Frank Gibson, an a^orney, and his wife Stella, who began renBng 3110 in 1924 when Mr. Gibson came to AusBn to serve as an Assistant A^orney General. Through the City Directories over the next several years one can see the impact of the Great Depression on Mr. Gibson’s family. A relaBve of Mr. Gibson, James P. Gibson (likely his son, iniBally listed as a “broker”) and his wife Jesse moved in with the Gibsons at 3110. By 1932 James Gibson had become an a^orney but worked in a different office from C. Frank. By 1937, the C. Frank Gibsons appeared to have moved away from 3110, first to premises on College Avenue, and then to Shady Lane. Mr. Gibson, by then known as Carl Gibson, eventually formed an AusBn law firm with James, Gibson & Gibson. The house at 3110 then seems to have remained vacant unBl 1941, when Mr. and Mrs. Coley C. White Sr and their son Coley White Jr. rented the house. In the City Directory, no profession was listed for C. White Senior, but Junior was staBoned at Camp Mabry. There is a Coley C. White who was Travis County Sheriff from 1929 – 1932, and a Texas Ranger aVer that. He would have been 58 and presumably reBred, and only rented 3110 for one year, perhaps while building elsewhere, or to see his son se^led at Camp Mabry, perhaps off to fight in WWII. In 1942, the house was rented by Henry H. Blaust, Physician. In 1944, the house was sold to Ed R. Simmons, an Assistant State A^orney General, and his wife Sally. They then sold two years later to Thomas Blackwell and his wife ErnesBne. Mr. Blackwell is first listed in the City Directory as a student at the University of Texas. In the 1949 Directory, Mr. Blackwell is listed as a psychologist, who by then had sold 3110 to Russell and Jean Lee. The Lees occupied 3110 from 1949 to 1993. Both Lees were extraordinarily noteworthy occupants. Russell Lee was one of the foremost Depression-era photographers and photojournalists in the United States. A major collecBon of his work is archived at the Briscoe Center for American History at UT, including the renowned photo essay, "Study of the Spanish Speaking People of Texas." Jean Lee was a pivotal figure in the Texas DemocraBc Party. 2 Russell Lee’s Wikipedia pages provides the following descripBon: In the fall of 1936, during the Great Depression, Lee was hired for the federally sponsored Farm Security AdministraAon (FSA) photographic documentaAon project of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administraAon. He joined a team assembled under Roy Stryker, along with Dorothea Lange, Arthur Rothstein, and Walker Evans. Stryker provided direcAon and bureaucraAc protecAon to the group, leaving the photographers free to compile what in 1973 was described as "the greatest documentary collecAon which has ever been assembled." Over the spring and summer of 1942, Lee was one of several government photographers to document the forced relocaAon of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. He produced more than 600 images of families waiAng to be removed and their later lives in various detenAon faciliAes, most located in isolated areas of the interior of the country. AUer the FSA was defunded in 1943, Lee served in the Air Transport Command (ATC). During this period, he took photographs of all the airfield approaches used by the ATC to supply the Armed Forces in World War II. In 1946 and 1947, he worked for the United States Department of the Interior (DOI), helping the agency compile a medical survey in communiAes involved in mining bituminous coal. He created over 4,000 photographs of miners and their working condiAons in coal mines. In 1946, Lee completed a series of photos focused on a Pentecostal Church of God in a Kentucky coal camp. In 1947 Lee moved to AusAn, Texas, and conAnued photography. In 1965 he became the first instructor of photography at the University of Texas. Lee's work is held in collecAons at the University of Louisville; the New Mexico Museum of Art; the Wialiff collecAons, Texas State University; the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History at the University of Texas at AusAn; and the Library of Congress. In 2016, Lee Elementary, a school in the AusBn Independent School District, was renamed Russell Lee Elementary in honor of the photographer. Jean Lee (nee Smith, of Dallas, Texas) began her professional life as a journalist. She moved to New Orleans in the 1930s, where she met Russell Lee. They relocated to Washington DC during WWII, where Russell became an aerial photographer for the Air Transport Command, and Jean worked for the Office of War InformaBon. According to the author of Power, Money and the People (Anthony M. Orum), Jean and Russell Lee were acBve in the formaBon of the New Deal policies. As soon as the war ended, they moved to AusBn, where Jean became a noted poliBcal organizer. Just before moving to 3110 in 1949, she served as campaign manager for Emma Long, the first woman elected to AusBn’s City Council, and conBnued to work with Ms. Long through nine further terms. She served as campaign manager for Senator Ralph Yarborough in his 1952 and 1954 campaigns for governor. She led a successful campaign to keep the AusBn Central Library downtown, when it appeared plans were afoot to move it to the suburbs. 3 The current owner of 3110, author of this narraBve, knew Jean as a neighbor, and was told many stories by her, including the following: Jean was Ann Richards’ mentor. This is backed up by Governor Richards referring to Jean as her “role model” and describing her as “a woman of extraordinary talent and a good fighter”.2 When President Kennedy was coming to Texas in November 1953, a fight broke out between the liberal and conservaBve branches of the Texas DemocraBc Party regarding whose party the President would a^end when he arrived in AusBn from Dallas. The liberal wing won, and the party was to be held at 3110 West Avenue. Sadly, the president never made it. Jean and Russell Lee traveled to Mexico with the photographer Edward SBeglitz and his wife, the painter Georgia O’Keeffe. When asked what Georgia O’Keefe was like, Jean said, “Oh, I didn’t like her – she tried to steal everyone’s husbands.” Anthony Orum, in Power, Money and the People: The Making of Modern AusAn, describes Jean Lee as having a “genius for poliBcal organizaBon.” She developed a Bght precinct organizaBon called the Social and LegislaBve Conference, a complex network that could be moBvated to acBon when needed. Russell Lee died in 1988. In 1993, Jean Lee donated 3110 to the AusBn Community FoundaBon, the largest unrestricted giV received up to that Bme. Jean Lee moved to a nursing home, and died in 1996. Russell Lee’s photographic studio was located in a small co^age across the alley from 3110 West Avenue, and had an apartment adjacent he rented to graduate students. Jean Lee never entered the studio aVer his death in 1988, and when 3110 was purchased in 1994 by the current owner, the studio was purchased by Simon Atkinson, the current owner of Heritage House and is now an annex of Heritage House. In 2016, aVer the racially moBvated mass shooBng in Charleston, South Carolina, prompted a naBonal conversaBon about Confederate symbols, the AusBn Independent School Board voted to rename the Robert E. Lee Elementary School, in honor of Russell Lee, based upon his renown as a photographer and teacher, and longBme resident of the neighborhood. In 2021, the City of AusAn Historic Building Survey Report by HHM & Associates recommends 3110 as a local landmark (p. 46), considering it to be “contribuBng to the Heritage Historic District”. (p 133). 2 “A Celebra*on of the Life of Jean Lee”, Memorial Notes, 1996. 4 Jean and Russell Lee House Supplemental Information 3110 West Avenue Austin, TX 78705 East Eleva)on (Front) East Eleva)on (Front) North Eleva)on (Side) West Eleva)on (Rear) South Eleva)on (Side) Art & Photography Video Artists Galleries Interviews Essays  Reviews Subscribe About F. Jack Hurley on Russell Lee (1973) Posted on February 14, 2010 by Editorial @ ASX   By F. Jack Hurley Originally published in IMAGE: Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, September, 1973 To try to capsulize the work of Russell Lee into a short article is an essentially impossible task. The man has been active in the eld of photography so long and in so many dierent ways. There are certain themes, however, which do assert themselves. Russell Lee is a man who loves people. He is a man of gentle humor and broad toleration. Over the years his subject matter has ranged from social problems to industrial organization but through it all his best work has always exhibited a deep concern for his fellow human being. In the early days, nobody intended for Russell Lee to become a photographer. Born in 1903 to a comfortable mid-western family, young Rus grew up in sleepy Ottawa, Illinois, was sent at the proper time to Culver Military Academy and nished o his formal education with a Chemical Engineering degree from Lehigh University. He came back to his home town and became plant chemist for a company called Certainteed Products, making composition roong. A prosaic story if ever there was one. In 1927 Russell married a talented young painter named Doris Emrick and the two went to Europe on their honeymoon. The next year found them back in the Mid-West where Russell was managing a plant in Kansas City and Doris was studying painting at the Kansas City Art Institute. It was not a bad life, but Russell was bored. Doris’ interest in art was opening new ideas to him and the world of Certainteed Products seemed more and more constricting. Fortunately, Russell did not have to remain bound to his job by economic necessity. He had a permanent income from some farms which he had inherited. In 1929, as the stock market was crashing and the economy was crumbling into ruins, Russell decided that he wanted to learn how to paint. That year he and Doris began to travel, to San Francisco, to Europe and back to San Francisco. They met Diego Rivera and others who were in the forefront of the artistic movements of the day. From Arnold Blanch they heard about the exciting artists’ colony which was growing up in those days at Woodstock, New York. By the end of 1931 they were at Woodstock where Doris’ talents were ourishing. But Russell was becoming frustrated: “I think I was looking for something. Yes, I think I was. Well, I tried to be a painter and I realized that I couldn’t be a very good painter because I couldn’t draw very well.”1     For four years, Russell stuck it out. Summers were spent in Woodstock and winters at the Art Students’ League in New York City. For all his frustrations, Lee was gaining a strong background in visual imagery. Whether he ever became a painter or not, he would know what a good picture was. This is a point worth emphasizing, for Lee’s work is often seen as naive. Naive it may be, but the naivete is informed artistically and consciously chosen. The pivotal event came in 1935 when Lee became the possessor of a small Contax 35mm. camera. A friend named Emil Ganso had suggested that it might help with his drawing. Another friend, Konrad Cramer, had gotten a Leica and the two began to compare notes. It was fun and Lee found himself more and more caught up in the fascination of the ne little machine and the darkroom and the print: “I got my rst camera because, as I say, I wasn’t a very good draftsman and I thought that would help. But I ended up getting interested in photography.” As his interest in photography bloomed, Russell came alive. Every phase of the process fascinated him. The artist in him found expression in the quick- caught images. The engineer-chemist loved the technical aspects of the work. Soon Lee was mixing his own chemicals from published formulae and “pushing” the lms of the day from their normal ratings of ASA 32 (modern rating system) all the way up to ASA 100! He discovered the possibilities (and the limitations) in open ash and began to experiment with early ash synchronizers. It was a happy, productive period. As Lee began to see the world in new terms through the viewnder of his Contax, he also began to develop a social conscience: “I got interested in what was going on around the Woodstock community. I went to auctions where poor people were selling o all their household goods. I went to a local election and photographed it at night using the Contax and open ash. . . . I tried my hand at a county fair. That spring I went down to Pennsylvania with some friends and photographed the bootleg coal mines. I was developing a social conscience at that time because people were so damned poor.” In the winter of 1935, Russell walked the streets of New York, looking for ways to visually express the poverty and misery around him. His sense of humor remained however and when the evangelist Father Divine came up the Hudson River with a whole ock of his angels in train, Lee photographed the event with vigor. By this time, Lee had an agent in New York and was beginning to sell some pictures to magazines. More importantly, he was beginning to evolve distictive elements in his own style and approach to photography.     In later years, Lee’s work has often been thought of in terms of series. The Pie Town series or the San Augustine series spring immediately to mind. Lee became known for his ability to dissect a situation with his cameras and show all of its facets. This ability seems to have appeared quite early. In a recent interview, I asked the question, “Were you looking for one great picture in those early situations or were you thinking in terms of series?” Lee’s answer was illuminating: “Well, in the case of the auctions I would shoot several pictures —dierent facets of the auction. It might be the auctioneer or it might be the faces of people selling things, or the audience, or even a pile of belongings. It was not exactly a picture story— not yet—but I was after the many sides of the auction.” Perhaps it was the background training in the sciences, or perhaps it was merely a natural tendency. Whatever the reason, Lee took pictures in series from the very beginning. Long before most American photographers were thinking in terms of the photo-essay Lee’s mind was moving in that direction. Years later, his friend and mentor, Roy Stryker, summed up the Lee approach to photography in this way: “Russell was the taxonomist with a camera. . . . He takes apart and gives you all the details of the plant. He lays it on the table and says, There you are, Sir, in all its parts. . . .’ “2 Russell was nding his life’s direction by the summer of 1936. He was also getting to know his way around the world of photography. He met Willard Morgan, he attended meetings of “The Circle of Confusion,” a group of people in New York who knew and loved good photography, he became friends with Harold Harvey, the brilliant photographic chemist who developed the 777 formula. Things were falling into place, but the great work was still ahead. It was in the early summer of 1936 that Lee heard about the work that was going on down in Washington by an obscure farm agency then known as the Resettlement Administration.3 Joe Jones, a painter, told him about the project and indicated that Ben Shahn might be a good man to get in touch with for more information. Lee had met Shahn several times during the years in New York and he knew and respected the painter’s work. If Shahn was involved with the project it must be worth looking into, so Lee bundled a portfolio of prints into his car and headed down to Washington to see if he could tin. Shahn, of course, was only peripherally involved with the photographic project and could oer nothing but encouragement. He did, however, send Russell over to see the director of the project, Roy Stryker. I showed Roy a bunch of pictures . . . and he liked them but had no openings. He said, “Why don’t you go over to the Department of Agriculture?” Well, I did that and all they had was a job coloring photographs for the Forest Service. I just turned on my heel and went out of that!   Well, three or four weeks later I got a call from Roy to go down and photograph the Jersey Homesteads housing project. Ben Shahn was living down there and they had a garment workers’ cooperative project going. So I went down there and photographed that. I made a lot of 8×10 prints of dierent facets of community life. Roy liked them and Carl Mydans was leaving so I got the job. Lee clearly wanted to work on the Resettlement Administration project because it interested him, not because he needed the job. The USDA job did not interest him and so he “turned on his heel.” The gift of being responsible only to oneself is not given to everyone in the arts, but Lee has used that gift carefully. His nancial independence meant that he could wait until the right opportunity arrived without the specter of starvation close by. By the fall of 1936, Lee was on the RA payroll, working with Dorothea Lange, Arthur Rothstein and Walker Evans on what was to become the legendary FSA photographic project. (The agency’s name was changed from Resettlement Administration to Farm Security Administration in 1937.) Roy Stryker provided direction and bureaucratic protection to the group, leaving the photographers free to compile the greatest documentary collection which has ever been assembled in this country. Lee’s rst trip for the Resettlement Administration was supposed to last six weeks. It lasted nine months. The trip yielded dozens of signicant individual photographs and at least one fully developed photo-essay. Lee was sent to the area he knew best, the Mid-West, and soon his pictures were arriving in Washington in regular batches, always accompanied by complete captions and relevant information. (Two of his best early photographs are featured in The Bitter Years, Edward Steichen, editor. They are titled “Old Age” and “A Christmas Dinner.”)4 In early 1937, Russell was still in the Mid-West when the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers ooded. He covered the eects of ooding on rural and small town folk, traveling for weeks in the chaos and muck of a major disaster. When the oods were over, Russell returned to Indiana where a thought struck him: “The hired man is an essential part of the farm economy. Why not document him?” Roy liked the idea and Russell began to use his camera in the way he knew best, digging into the details of a social situation. The result was an extended photo-essay “The Hired Man.” Although it was never published, “The Hired Man” represented a very denite high point in Lee’s career up to that point. Here he brought to bear all his scientic background and all his skill with a camera to produce a fully realized visual document of social patterns: “I was interested in how people lived. . . . I felt that the inside of a house was a very important part of showing how people lived. Of course, the outside was important too. You could tell about people by how the owers were placed and how things were kept up. I became concerned with details. . . . I’d go in a bedroom and maybe I’d see something on a bedside table that would interest me. The things people kept around them could tell you an awful lot about the antecedents of these people.” Lee’s work was always probing, but also gentle and respectful. He liked the people he was documenting and his work showed it. During his rst, long trip for the Resettlement Administration, it was decided that the director, Roy Stryker, should come out and meet him in the eld so that they could look at pictures together and talk over general aims. Stryker traveled with him for several days and vividly recalled his ability to gain access into homes where most photographers would never have been trusted: “I didn’t get out into the eld much, but one of my rst trips was out to Minnesota or Wisconsin with Russell Lee. We were in a small town and he saw this little old lady with a little knot of hair on her head. He wanted to take her picture but the woman said, “What do you want to take my picture for?” Russell’s response was part of my education as to how a photographer thinks. He turned to the lady and said, “Lady, you’re having a hard time and a lot of people don’t think that you’re having such a hard time. We want to show them that you’re a human being, a nice human being, but you’re having troubles.” “Well,” she said, “Allright, you can take my picture, but I’ve got some friends, and I wish you’d take their pictures too. Could you come and have some lunch with me today?” We stayed all that day and that night and had supper. She invited four or ve women over and Russell took pictures.5       Everyone who has worked with Lee has been impressed with the quality which Stryker describes, the quality of trust. Somehow, he has always managed to take photographs of the intimate areas of people’s lives when most photographers would not have gotten in the door. People who have seen Lee’s pictures from this period often remark on the stark, almost glaring light which he used. It is true that he was fascinated with on-the-camera ash, which often led to harsh shadows. On the other hand it also yielded details and details were what Lee wanted. I asked him about his use of ash on the camera and his answer was direct and to the point: “I have always believed in keeping my technique as simple as possible in the eld. If I had begun to string wires for multiple ash exposures, I would have lost many important pictures. Remember also I was traveling alone in those days so I had to keep it simple.” For the next several years, Lee’s life was a busy composite of long road trips and periods of intense activity in Washington, testing new equipment, helping to plan exhibitions and working with the other photographers. Lee’s rst marriage had dissolved at about the time that he joined the agency. In 1938 he met a young woman in New Orleans named Jean Smith. The two began working together and before long, Jean was Jean Lee. It was, and is, a good marriage. The two personalities complemented each other and the work went on. By 1941 the reality of approaching war was looming larger and larger, aecting the United States government and all of its agencies. Lee and the other FSA photographers began to do more assignments emphasizing preparedness and fewer of the rural and small town pictures which they had so enjoyed. Often they were “loaned” to other government agencies to give them the benet of their expertise. Lee covered several industrial stories for the Oce of Emergency Management and was, in fact, photographing the construction of Shasta Dam for that agency when the bombs began to fall an Pearl Harbor. Since he was already in the West, it fell to Russell to help cover one of the strangest and saddest stories of the war, the removal of the Japanese- American people from the West Coast. With his wife, Jean, he gained access to the homes of the people and followed them through the doleful process of selling their belongings and moving inland to the camps. It was a tough assignment because you saw these people just herded with tags on them. And you saw their little houses and businesses with the ‘For Sale’ sign up. The inland camps were decent enough, but desolate, and the job of covering them was not one which either Russell or Jean could have enjoyed. The photographic documentation of this chapter of American history was important work, however, which needed doing. Several of Russell’s best pictures of the relocation are featured in the book Executive Order 9066 by Maisie and Richard Conrat.6 The serious student of American photography (or American history for that matter) owes himself a careful viewing of those photographs.     In December of 1942, Russell and Jean were back in Washington. Jean was working in the Oce of War Information and Russell was doing photographic assignments, also for the OWI. One evening an old friend, Pare Lorentz, dropped by for a chat. Pare had directed important documentary lms during the depression, including THE RIVER and THE PLOW THAT BROKE THE PLAINS. Lorentz had been asked by the Army Air Force to put together a unit of top professional photographers to photograph the routes and airelds of the Air Transport Command. Since American pilots often found themselves ying into airelds which were completely unfamiliar to them, often on radio silence and with only the crudest navigational devices, some good means of visual brieng before ight was needed. Thus there was an immediate need for good clear still photographs and movies. The army was willing to give the project high priority and they wanted the best. Would Russell take on the job of shooting stills? Lee was 39 years old in 1942, hardly a callow youth. He did not have to go to war. Jean was not entirely enthusiastic about the separation either. In a recent interview, the two reminisced about the decision to go with the Air Transport Command: “Russell: So, Pare was putting together this organization and he wanted me to be in charge of the stills. Now, Pare was a great salesman and he decided that if he could persuade Jean that everything would be all right. Jean: (Laughing) He told me rmly that if Rus would go into it I could meet him at least once a month at the Shephard’s Hotel in Cairo, Egypt, and have a wonderful holiday. He said Cairo was one of the most fascinating cities in the world and everything would be ne. Now, of course, I never believed a word of it, but this was the sort of thing he was feeding us.” Eventually, Pare’s salesmanship (coupled with Russell’s desire to be a part of the national eort) won out. Russell received his commission as a Captain on January 31, 1943. The army high command was as good as its word. The photographic project was given number one (Presidential) priority. A B-24 bomber was assigned to them and specially modied for aerial photography. The nose was converted to high-grade glass and the waist and tailgunner’s positions were also modied to accommodate the needs of photographers. The rst real mission of the photographic crew in their glass-nosed bomber covered an incredible amount of territory. For four months the crew ew almost non-stop along the southern transport route from Florida to Puerto Rico and Trinidad, on to Brazil, across the South Atlantic to Ascension Island, on to Accra and Dakar, over the Sahara and Atlas Mountains to Marrakesh. From Marrakesh in Morroco, all U.S. transport plans branched o in two directions, one to the North into Britain and the other to the East. The photographic crew dutifully followed out both routes. Eventually Russell reached Cairo (Jean was not there). From Cairo the group headed East via Khartoum, Aden and Karachi and nally turned for home. When the rst mission was over Russell had lost 22 pounds, had the beginnings of a rst-class ulcer, and was ready for a rest. For Russell and Jean the war settled into a weary routine of long missions overseas (Jean remaining in Washington to work for the OWI) and short rest periods. The photographic unit was tight-knit and professional when it was on the job, but Jean recalled that they were anything but military when they were in Washington: “At one time, somehow, Pare decided that they weren’t really acting in a military fashion and that they ought to start drilling every day. Well, the oce was right across from the Washington Monument grounds, so Pare gave an order that the ten or twelve of them would get out every morning and drill on the grounds. For about three mornings they drilled and somebody called up and said, “Get those guys o the grounds! They don’t know how to drill. They don’t know how to do anything!” And this was the end of the military drilling.” In 1944 the photographic group went to the Far East. Operating out of New Delhi, the group covered air bases in Ceylon and India and eventually ew “The Hump” into China. As the still photographer for the group, Lee’s duties included quite a lot of work on the ground in addition to the aerial photography. He was expected to photograph the base facilities and military living conditions so that the high command back in Washington would have a visual check on how the remote bases were being run. At his own suggestion, he began to get out into the countryside wherever possible and photograph the impact of the war on the local people. Some of his nest photographs from this period were done during these occasional sorties into the countryside. Here the humanist in Lee could reassert itself and he could concentrate on people again. Looking back on his years in the Air Transport Command, Lee could see some benets to himself as a photographer. He did become quite expert in aerial photography, a skill he would put to use on many later industrial assignments. He did develop a very quick “eye” for photographs, for one cannot always turn a B-24 around to pick up a lost shot. And nally, he became more familiar than ever with the 4×5 format. “You got to the point where you automatically placed a 4×5 frame around whatever you saw,” he recalls. On the whole, however, the war was an exhausting and often frustrating experience for Russell and he was ready to get out of the service as soon as possible. When the war was over, Russell was in Portland, Oregon, having just returned from a mission in Alaska. He headed immediately for Washington, D.C., and Jean. When he arrived he learned that a new special order had come through allowing anyone over forty to get out of the Army immediately. Russell, aged forty-two, got out. Within ten days of the end of the war, the Lees were out of Washington, heading west. After a stop in Dallas, Texas, to see Jean’s parents, Russell and Jean retreated to the country. Both were mentally and physically exhausted and Jean swore that she would never go near a city again. For weeks they stayed in a cabin on Lake Buchanan near Austin, Texas. (Russell’s love aair with the Texas Hill Country goes back to early trips for the FSA and continues to the present.) When the weather became too hot they headed for Colorado. There, in the remote wilderness of the western slope, reality and responsibility caught up with them. Russell and Jean had been staying at a ranch near the tiny village of Lake City, Colorado, for about three weeks when a ranch hand came running up to them, out of breath and wide-eyed. “The White House is calling!” he gasped. Sure enough, Pare Lorentz had a new job for Russell and he had gotten the White House operator to locate him. Five days later, tired and dishevelled, the Lees arrived in Washington. The next morning, Russell reported for work. The situation which had brought the Lees out of their short-lived retirement was an emergency in the nation’s bituminous coal industry. In the spring of 1946 the country had suered widespread and bitter strikes among the coal miners. The coal mining industry had been under tremendous pressure to produce during the war and there had not always been time to put the welfare of the worker rst. As long as the nation had been at war, the miners had accepted their lot as a patriotic duty, but now the war was over and they were determined to improve themselves. In some cases their haste led to violence and destruction. The Truman Administration, anxious to determine just what sort of conditions did exist in the bituminous coal industry, commissioned a group of Naval ocers who were experts in the eld of health to work through the Department of the Interior on a survey of health, housing and mining conditions. The people who planned the survey realized at the outset that a report of the type they envisioned would need illustrations and Lee seemed the best man for such a job. After a series of high speed orientation trips through the coalmining areas, Russell and Jean were sent out more or less on their own to seek the photographs which would illustrate the weaknesses and the strengths of the coal mining industry. It was a good feeling to be back on the road again, doing the job that they both knew how to do best. The work was essentially an extension of the work Russell had done for the FSA and he knew just how to approach it. For the next seven months the Lees were on the road most of the time. They talked to hundreds of miners and their families, sat at their tables and learned their way of life. The work yielded over 3000 negatives and many of the images were to be among Russell’s best. The information specialist on the health survey of the coal industry was an old friend of the Lees, Allan Sherman. It was his job to travel with the survey team and make certain that the local communities understood who they were and what they were doing. He also did much of the writing of the nal report. In a recent visit to Washington I found Sherman still working for the Department of the Interior. He seemed pleased to take a half an hour to talk about the miners’ crisis and Russell Lee’s work. “Russell Lee,” he said, “has a great talent for establishing rapport very quickly with people. People simply trust him and before you know it he is taking pictures which no one else could possibly have gotten.”7 The completed report, titled A Medical Survey of the Bituminous Coal Industry was published in 1947.8 It contained hundreds of Lee’s photographs as well as a very detailed discussion of health conditions in the mines. The last sixty-seven pages of the book contained a supplementary section designed to humanize the problems which had been discussed in more or less abstract terms on the pages before. The supplement was called “The Coal Miner and His Family.” It was written by Allan Sherman and, of course, illustrated by Russell Lee. Because it expressed the problems of the mining camps so powerfully, the Department of the Interior re-issued “The Coal Miner and His Family” as a separate publication. Its quality holds up quite well today. The work that Russell Lee did for the Department of the Interior in 1946 and 1947 is important for two reasons. Visually it was very strong. It represented some of Lee’s best social photography. But on a political level it also had en impact. Allan Sherman said of the report, “It had a great deal of inuence in eliminating company housing, company stores and improving health facilities.” Today the photographs which Lee made for the medical survey of the coal industry are still kept together, along with their negatives and contact prints, at the Department of the Interior. The collection remains under the careful custodianship of Allan Sherman. When the work for the Bureau of Mines was over Russell and Jean returned to central Texas, the area they were beginning to think of as “home.” The spring of 1947 found them back at the cabin near Lake Buchanan and by that summer they had found a permanent home in Austin. Russell began to take on occasional commercial jobs and Jean, good Texas Populist that she is, became deeply involved in the liberal wing of the local Democratic Party. During the late 1940’s, Lee began to take occasional commercial assignments. His old friend and boss, Roy Stryker, had gone to work for the Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) and was directing the photography for Standard Oil’s house organ, The Lamp. Stryker had attracted a sta of ne photographers which included at one time or another “Esther Bubley, John Vachon, Harold Corsini, Gordon Parks, Eliot Erwitt, and many other top names in the eld. The Lamp stood in a class by itself among the private magazines of its day and has provided the prototype for the best house organs since. Lee had no desire to be a sta member of any magazine, but he did take assignments for The Lamp—when those assignments interested him. Over the years Russell worked on stories ranging from modern cattle ranching in west Texas (using helicopters and trucks to work the cattle) to prospecting for oil in swamps of Louisiana. As is often the case, Lee’s work for The Lamp led to other commercial assignments. He did considerable work for Fortune magazine in the late 1940’s and that relationship continued well into the 1960’s. He also took several major assignments for Dow Chemical Company. In the mid-1950’s he visited the Middle East twice for Arabian American Oil Company. Lee was a good industrial photographer. His background in chemical engineering stood him in good stead in this area. He understood the processes involved and could appreciate the pleasure felt by an engineer in contemplating a well-run plant. As always, however, it was the human aspects of industrial processes which interested him most and which elicited his best work. For example, while he was on the Middle East assignments for Aramco he became fascinated with the company’s relationship with the local people. As a part of their contractual obligation, the company was training native Arabs to assume responsibility for the local operation. Many skills necessary to the running of a renery or the locating of or drilling for oil were simply foreign to the regional population. Lee recalls photographing Saudi Arabians being taught to use a hammer and nails. Coming from a treeless culture, they knew nothing of such basic industrial skills. Lee enjoyed his commercial photography but it never dominated his life. For one thing, Jean never fully approved of his working for such industries as Standard Oil and Dow Chemical. She never quite understood the aesthetic pleasure that could be gained from probing into the visual intricacies of a complex industrial process and her background and training had imbued her with a deep-set distrust of all big business. In addition, Russell himself never felt the necessity to take every assignment that was oered him. In a recent interview, I asked him about his industrial work. His answer was worth repeating. “Hurley. Isn’t the basic problem in commercial photography to please someone else? Lee: Yes, in a way I suppose it is, but I also had to please myself. There is a real distinction between straight commercial photography and professional photography, you know, and I think it is important to make that distinction. A commercial photographer is a camera for hire. If a job didn’t really engage my interest, I didn’t take the job. My rst responsibility was always to myself.” In the years since World War II Lee has been quite successful as a professional photographer, often receiving assignments which paid very well. There were also many jobs, however, which he did on his own simply because he wanted to do them. Often these involved little or no money and, as might be expected, they included some of his best work from that period. In 1950 Lee worked with the University of Texas on a major study of Spanish-speaking people in Texas. The study included living conditions and health problems among Latin-Americans. In those early post-war days, the Spanish-speaking people were often the poorest and most exploited folk in the Southwest. Their problems needed airing and Lee was glad to be involved. In Corpus Christi, Texas, he found a local doctor, Dr. Hector Garcia who let Russell accompany him on his daily rounds through the Spanish-speaking ghetto. It was an eye-opening experience, for living conditions were often as bad as or worse than any he had encountered before—and this was supposed to be auent Texas! The study included San Antonio, San Angelo and El Paso as well as Corpus Christi and when it was done, the University of Texas was in possession of a thorough visual analysis of the problems of Latin Americans in the Southwest. Over the years Russell shot many stories for the Texas Observer, a small but extremely inuential newspaper published in Austin. In a state which has traditionally been deeply and unthinkingly conservative, the Texas Observer has often been forced to play the role of a still, small voice of reason. It has never been a wealthy newspaper (it has lost money in far more years than it has made money) but it has spawned some of the nest journalists and writers that have been seen in this country in recent years. People like Ronnie Dugger and Willie Morrris cut their journalistic teeth by nettling the Texas power structure from the pages of the Texas Observer. One of Lee’s nest stories for the Texas Observer involved a series of visits to state institutions for the elderly and the insane. The images that he recorded in those places were stark and terrifying. Then as now, the elderly and insane were society’s forgotten people and Lee’s pictures made this bitterly clear. Jean’s interest and involvement in the close-knit world of liberal Texas politics led Russell into photographic coverage of many political events and leaders. The Lees developed a long-standing friendship with Senator Ralph Yarborough and Russell took hundreds of photographs of his variegated career. Russell was at his best capturing the still rural face of Texas politics during the 1950’s. In those days the political processes to a large degree hinged on watermelon and barbecue and hot summer afternoons under the live-oak trees. Lee’s cameras caught it all far better than it can be described in words. In 1960 some friends on the sta of the University of Texas suggested that Russell should work with Professor William Arrowsmith on a special issue of the prestigious Texas Quarterly. Arrowsmith, a specialist in classical languages, was editing a large number of articles by Italian scholars for publication in one addition. The title of the special Texas Quarterly was to be The Image of Ita/y.9 What would be more natural than to commission a ne photographer to secure some sensitive images as illustrations? Arrowsmith got a small grant to help nance Russell’s trip and the two of them went to Italy. Well, from a commercial standpoint, the trip was nothing. There’s no question I lost money on it! But so what. I like the pictures that I got over there and I think that’s what really counts when it’s all over. Looking back, Lee insists that he approached Italy as a tourist; but if that was the case it was as a tourist with years of experience in visual imagery. His sense of light, his ability to capture eeting expressions, his love for the poetry of the human body all reached heights of expression which he had seldom achieved before. At the age of 57 Russell Lee was still growing photographically, still learning, and still maturing. Between the creative high points, Russell and Jean took life pretty much as it came to them in the post-war years. When an assignment came along that interested Russell he took it. If it paid, ne, if not, it wasn’t terribly important. If there were no photographic jobs on the horizon, there was always the shing at Lake Buchanan or up in Colorado. Russell and Jean had known years of intense pressures during the depression and the war and they were ready to avoid really high-level pressures for a while. It required a matter of considerable importance to bring the Lees out of Austin. One event which was always certain to claim their attention was the annual photo-workshop which was held at the University of Missouri for two weeks each fall. The University of Missouri’s Photo-Workshop was the brain child of Clif Edom who taught photography in the Journalism department there. His idea was to bring in a hand-picked group of advanced young photographers and place them under the inuence of the masters in the eld. Roy Stryker took part in several of the early workshops. Other top names were there too. The workshops began in 1948 and have continued to the present as one of the nest learning experiences in the world of photography. Russell attended the second workshop as an instructor in 1949 and served on the sta for the next thirteen years. For eight years he and Jean were designated co-directors. The worksnops were carefully structured by Edom to give the most intensive sort of training to the young photographers who were selected to take part. Each year a small town in Missouri was chosen for a thorough photographic analysis. The group would attempt to identify and visually portray the town’s power structure, its economic base, its problems and its strengths. The formula seems to have worked, for the stas of many of the nest magazines and newspapers in the country are seeded with “graduates” of the University of Missouri’s Photo-Workshops. During those short, intense weeks in small Missouri towns it became clear that Russell was a really ne natural teacher. He was patient and open minded and he had the magic knack for positive criticism which sent the student out anxious to do more. Luckily for a generation of students, the University of Texas recognized his skill and brought him on to its faculty on a permanent basis. In 1964 friends in the Art Department at Austin asked Lee if he would be interested in doing a major retrospective exhibition. Lee thought it over, discussed it with Jean, and they decided that it might be a good experience. The next year Russell gave a show. In beautiful enlargements ranging up to 30×40 he presented over 400 prints spanning his whole career. The exhibition covered an entire oor of the University’s spacious art center and was very well received. As a direct result of the exhibition, Lee was asked to design and teach the rst photography course ever oered by the University of Texas’ Art Department. Since 1965 Russell Lee has taught Texas art students about a way of seeing and a philosophy of life. As an almost incidental thing, he has also taught them a great deal about photography. I visited some of his classes this spring and they were a delightful experience. The air was full of freedom and his students obviously loved him very much. One morning we all trouped out to a sunny hillside for a group portrait and the enthusiasm and high-spirited exchanges between Russell and the young people turned what could have been a mundane moment into a festive occasion. Several students told me that they had spent a year on a waiting list to get into the basic photography course, “but it sure was worth it.” Later that day Russell and I talked about teaching photography. Since the course is in the Art Department and is designed primarily for art students who have never held a camera before, Russell’s approach has been quite dierent from the methods used at the Missouri photo-workshops. There is far less noticeable organization, far less structure. Students are not sent out on explicit assignments. Instead they are introduced to a 4×5 view camera and a series of exercises designed to show them how light works. Later they are told to pick an area one-hundred feet square and photograph its ecology without any supplementary lighting or posing. This is designed to familiarize them with the dierent possibilities inherent in camera positions from the ultra close-up to the longer shot. As they reach an advanced level they are encouraged to photograph people with a 35mm. camera. One exercise suggests that they pick one friend and photograph him or her intensively. In this way they are gradually led to a thorough understanding of the capabilities of the camera and encouraged to grow in their own visual capacities. Some go into careers in photography, many remain in other branches of art. It doesn’t matter to Russell. The important thing is to learn to see—honestly. I’ve always told the students, you must be honest with this camera. If you nd that you have taken a picture which is untrue you must never let it be used. You must kill it. This spring Russell Lee reached the University of Texas’ compulsory retirement age of seventy. The news came as a shock to many of his friends for one simply doesn’t think of Russell retiring. He is one of the youngest seventy year olds I know. I asked him what he had in mind for the future and his answer was typical. Oh, Jean and I are going to take a good long trip to the West this summer. We’ll probably see how the shing is up around Lake City, Colorado and we are going to see some friends. Later we will come back to Texas and see if the bass are biting up at Lake Buchanan. “Do you suppose you will take a camera or two along?”, I asked. “I wouldn’t be surprised if I did.” He smiled. “No, I wouldn’t be surprised if I did.” F. Jack Hurley 1. All quotes from Russell and Jean Lee were taken from a series of nine tape-recorded interviews which were conducted by the author in Austin, Texas, May 15, 16 and 17, 1973, under the sponsorship of the Memphis State University Oce of Oral History Research. The tapes are at present untranscribed but will eventually be available to scholars through the Mississippi Valley Archives of Memphis State University. The author wishes to express his special thanks to Russell and Jean Lee for their help in preparing this article. 2. F. Jack Hurley with photographic editing by Robert J. Doherty, Portrait of a Decade: Roy Stryker and the Development of Documentary Photography in the Thirties, Baton Rouge, 1972, p. 148. 3. The formation and function of the Resettlement Administration and its successor, the Farm Security Administration, are fully discussed in Sidney Baldwin’s Poverty and Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Farm Security Administration, Chapel Hill, 1968. For a discussion of the photographic work of Stryker’s unit see F. Jack Hurley’s Portrait of a Decade. 4. Edward Steichen, ed., The Bitter Years: 1935-41, New York, 1962. 5. Quoted from Roy Stryker in Thomas Garver, ed., Just Before the War: Urban America from 1935 to 1941 as Seen by Photographers of the Farm Security Administration, Balboa, 1968. 6. Maisie and Richard Conrat, Executive Order 9066, California Historical Society, 1972. University. 7. Allan Sherman, Public Information Ocer, Department of Health and Safety, Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, interviewed by F. Jack Hurley, Arlington, Virginia, June 4, 1973. Tape- recorded, untranscribed, Mississippi Valley Archives of Memphis State 8. Rear Admiral Joel T. Boone, M.C., U.S. Navy, Director, A Medical Survey of the Bituminous Coal Industry, Washington, 1947. 9. William Arrowsmith, ed., Photographs by Russell Lee, ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTOR F. Jack Hurley, who teaches in the Department of History at Memphis State University, grew up in Texas, and was the “school photographer” at Austin College, Sherman, Texas. From 1962 to 1966 he took about 3000 photographs documenting New Orleans jazz for the archives of Tulane University in New Orleans, where he eventually obtained his Ph.D. in American history. His Ph.D. dissertation on photographers of the FSA was published in 1972 as Portrait of a Decade. George Eastman House www.geh.org Author : Pratt, George C., ed. Eastman House Volume : 16 Number : 3 Date : September, 1973 Title : IMAGE: Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of the INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM OF PHOTOGRAPHY at George Posted in Documentary Photography, Essays and tagged Essay R, F. Jack Hurley, Farm Security Administration, George Eastman House, Image Magazine, Pie Town, Russell Lee. ← Standing on the Corner –… Lee Friedlander: “Just Look At… →     POPULAR POSTS Dave Heath One Brief Moment 62 views Tomatsu Shomei <11:02> Nagasaki An Overview 31 views Paul Graham – “Photography is Easy, Photography is Dicult” (2009) 28 views Elise Toïdé Les Vagues 28 views Raymond Pettibon – The Art of Black Flag (1980s) 21 views Lars Tunbjörk – Alien at the Oce (2004) 18 views Nan Goldin on Cookie Mueller (2001) 17 views “WISCONSIN DEATH TRIP EXCERPTS” 15 views Notes on Five Key Jean-Michel Basquiat Works 15 views THEORY: "Nicholas Mirzoe: An Introduction to Visual Culture" (1999) 14 views A SiteOrigin Theme June 27, 2022 THE LIFE OF ADA C. PENN: DESIGNER, BUSINESSWOMAN, TRAILBLAZER H O M E ( / ) A B O U T U S M I S S I O N + H I S T O R Y ( / M I S S I O N - H I S T O R Y ) O U R B O A R D ( / B O A R D ) O U R S TA F F ( / S TA F F ) C A R E E R S ( / C A R E E R S ) S T R AT E G I C P L A N ( / S T R AT E G I C - P L A N ) B U S I N E S S M E M B E R D I R E C T O R Y ( / B U S I N E S S - M E M B E R - D I R E C T O R Y ) N E W S L E T T E R A R C H I V E ( / N E W S L E T T E R - A R C H I V E ) C O N TA C T U S ( / C O N TA C T- U S ) S U P P O R T U S J O I N + R E N E W ( /J O I N - R E N E W ) D O N AT E ( / D O N AT E ) V O L U N T E E R ( / V O L U N T E E R ) P L A N N E D G I V I N G ( / P L A N N E D - G I V I N G ) WAT E R L O O C I R C L E ( / WAT E R L O O - C I R C L E ) E M A I L S I G N U P ( / E M A I L - S I G N U P ) M C FA R L A N D H O U S E O U R F U T U R E H O M E ( / O U R - F U T U R E - H O M E ) H I S T O R Y ( / H I S T O R Y ) P R E S S ( / P R E S S ) P R O G R A M S H O M E S T O U R ( / H O M E S -T O U R ) P R E S E R VAT I O N M E R I T AWA R D S ( / P R E S E R VAT I O N - M E R I T- AWA R D S ) G R A N T S ( / G R A N T S ) H I S T O R I C A U S T I N T O U R S ( / H I S T O R I C - A U S T I N -T O U R S ) V I R T U A L P R O G R A M S ( / V I R T U A L - P R O G R A M S ) E A S T A U S T I N B A R R I O L A N D M A R K S ( / E A S T- A U S T I N - B A R R I O - L A N D M A R K S ) E V E N T S E V E N T S ( / E V E N T S ) C O V I D E V E N T P R O T O C O L S ( / C O V I D - E V E N T- P R O T O C O L S ) N E W S ( / N E W S ) A D V O C A C Y R E S O U R C E S H O W W E C A N H E L P ( / H O W - W E - C A N - H E L P ) O U R A D V O C A C Y P R I O R I T I E S ( /A D V O C A C Y- P R I O R I T I E S ) 8 8 T H T E X A S L E G I S L AT I V E P R I O R I T I E S ( / 8 8 T H -T E X A S - L E G I S L AT U R E ) A D V O C A C Y A R C H I V E ( /A D V O C A C Y- A R C H I V E ) A D V O C A C Y B A S I C S ( /A D V O C A C Y- B A S I C S ) P R E S E R VAT I O N T E R M S ( / T E R M I N O L O G Y ) AT T E N D I N G H L C M E E T I N G S ( /AT T E N D I N G - H L C - M E E T I N G S ) H I S T O R I C D E S I G N AT I O N S : W H AT ' S T H E D I F F E R E N C E ? ( / H I S T O R I C - D E S I G N AT I O N S - W H AT S -T H E - D I F F E R E N C E ) BY K AT H E R I N E E N D E R S Ada C. Read Penn, a resident of Austin in the early 20th century, is an important figure in the history of north central Austin. She was responsible for much of the development in what is known today as Austin’s Heritage Neighborhood, a rectangular area just south of the Austin State Hospital. It is bounded by Guadalupe Street, W 29th Street, Lamar Boulevard, and W 38th Street.  Ada Caroline Read was born to Dr. and Mrs. Rhosa Read in 1867 and raised in Texarkana. Once she was grown, Ada studied education at Huntsville State Teachers College Portrait of Ada Penn, 1945 (Wolff, Gail. "Pioneer Spirit Still Alive in Texas." The Austin American (1914-1973), Mar 11, 1945) and completed graduate work at Chicago University. She returned to Texarkana to serve as principal of their high school before moving to Taylor to become a teacher. It was here that she met her future husband, Robert Penn, who was then the city attorney in Taylor. The pair was married in 1889. The Penn family moved to Austin in 1902 when Robert was appointed District Judge of the Williamson-Travis District. They purchased the 1839 stone home that would one day become known as the “Heritage House” for their growing family. The home had been built over sixty years before the Penn family's arrival in Austin for Captain Baker, a military man that served under Mirabeau B. Lamar. Although it is located on West Avenue today, at the time the Penn’s purchased the home the street was still called “Insane Asylum Avenue.” This was because of its proximity to the Austin State Hospital, which was constructed in 1861 as the “State Lunatic Asylum.” March 2023 (/news? month=03-2023) Tool Time on TAP - Part 1: Home Repair (/news/tool- time-on-tap-part-1-home- repair) December 2022 (/news?month=12- 2022) Looking Back: 62nd Annual Preservation Merit Awards Celebration (/news/2022/12/7/looking- back-on-our-62nd-annual- preservation-merit-awards- celebration) Watson Chateau, Landmark of LGBTQ History, Listed on Preservation Texas's 2022 Most Endangered Places List (/news/watston-chateau-2022- most-endangered) October 2022 (/news? month=10-2022) Preservation Austin Celebrates 62nd Annual Preservation Merit Awards (/news/2022pmawinners) 2022 City Council Candidate Questionnaire - Mayor (/news/2022/10/6/city- council-candidate- questionnaire-mayor) 2022 City Council Candidate Questionnaire - District 9 (/news/2022/10/6/city- council-candidate- questionnaire-district-9) 2022 City Council Candidate Questionnaire - District 8 (/news/2022/10/6/city- council-candidate- Search Penn House, later known as Heritage House (Kennedy, Craig. [Heritage House, (East elevation)], photograph, April 4, 1974, Texas Historical Commission via The Portal to Texas History) (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth677057/m1/1/? EMAIL q=heritage%20house%3A%20accessed%20May%2016%2C%202022) SIGNUP Judge Penn died unexpectedly in 1909. His death left the 42 year old Ada For the latest preservation alone and unsupported, along with their 9 children who were aged between news, events, and issues. 11 months and 18 years old at the time. Although Robert left everything he had to Ada, she knew that it wouldn’t be enough to continue supporting her Email Address and her children for long. She needed to figure out a way to provide for her children long term. Ada decided to leverage one of the few assets she had to provide for her children–land. Ada determined that she could subdivide SIGN UP her ten acre property and develop the land into homes to cater to the professors at the University of Texas. It was at this time that Ada reportedly enrolled in night classes to learn drafting so she could make her plan a reality. She subdivided her land into 40 lots and she called the development Penn Place. Ada would plan out a home, then hire a contractor to carry out the work. The following are a few examples of homes that Ada is said to have designed herself: questionnaire-district-8) 2022 City Council Candidate Questionnaire - District 5 (/news/2022/10/6/city- council-candidate- questionnaire-district-3) 2022 City Council Candidate Questionnaire - District 3 (/news/2022/10/6/2022-city- council-candidate- questionnaire-district-3) 2022 City Council Candidate Questionnaire - District 1 (/news/2022/10/3/2022-city- council-candidate- questionnaire-district-1) August 2022 (/news? month=08-2022) Support our 2022 Membership Drive! (/news/2022membershipdrive) Preservation Austin Awards $15,000 in Summer 2022 Grant Cycle (/news/2022/8/2/preservation- austin-awards-15000-in- summer-2022-grant-cycle) July 2022 (/news? month=07-2022) ADVOCACY ALERT: Ask Council to Support the Future of Preservation in Austin (/news/2022/7/18/advocacy- alert-support-for-phase-2-of- the-equity-based-historic- preservation-plan) A Woman's Place: Sarah Weddington & the Fight for Roe v. Wade (/news/2022/6/26/i85daqmxajyllc0sr June 2022 (/news? month=06-2022) Call for Nominations: 2022 P i M i A d We respect your privacy. 700 W. 32nd Street, built circa 1922 3108 West Avenue, built circa 1923 901 W 31st Street, built circa 1912 It is uncertain exactly how many homes Ada was responsible for creating over the years. By 1928, the Austin American reported that over the last fifteen years Ada was responsible for building “upward of 100 houses” in the Penn Place development. Although the validity of this claim seems Preservation Merit Awards (/news/2022/6/27/call-for- nominations-2022- preservation-merit-awards) The Life of Ada C. Penn: Designer, Businesswoman, Trailblazer (/news/2022/6/26/7ldosib39xuj1zgoe Issues in Preservation: LGBTQIA Spaces and a Fight for Austin's Soul (/news/2022/6/24/issues-in- preservation-lgbtq-bars-and- a-fight-for-austins-soul) April 2022 (/news? month=04-2022) Changing Days at Dirty Martin’s (/news/2022/4/4/changing- days-at-dirty-martins) March 2022 (/news? month=03-2022) East Austin Barrio Landmarks: Santa Rita Courts (/news/2022/3/31/east-austin- barrio-landmarks-santa-rita- courts) East Austin Barrio Landmarks: Oswaldo "A.B." Cantu Pan American Recreation Center (/news/2022/3/29/east-austin- barrio-landmarks-oswaldo- ab-cantu-pan-american- recreation-center) East Austin Barrio Landmarks: Alberto & Eva Garcia House (/news/2022/3/16/east-austin- barrio-landmarks-alberto- amp-eva-garcia-house) East Austin Barrio Landmarks: Holly Street Murals (/news/2022/3/16/east-austin- barrio-landmarks-holly-street- murals) somewhat dubious given the size of the development, the article noted that these were “good houses and good looking ones, filled with individualistic touches which [added] beauty and convenience.”  It is interesting to note that Ada’s accomplishments are reported in an article discussing women’s hobbies in Austin. This demonstrates that Ada’s contributions, although recognized for their quality and style, were perhaps not viewed as seriously as that of a male builder. Another article published in 1945 claimed that she was involved in either the construction or renovation of approximately forty homes in the area, which seems more plausible. Family members of Ada have stated that she was responsible for designing at least 18 homes in the area. Regardless of exactly how many homes Ada was involved with, it is certain that she had a lasting impact on the urban fabric of the Heritage neighborhood. Ada was an entrepreneurial woman with a strong business savvy. She knew that getting tenants to move to a home located on Insane Asylum Avenue might be a difficult task, so she successfully petitioned the City Council to change the name of the street so that it was an extension of West Avenue instead. She advertised the homes she built and renovated in both the Austin American and the Austin Statesman. Her advertisements often took on a convincing tone, asking the reader why they would want to live in the “dust of downtown” when they could live at one of her “splendid lots” instead.   East Austin Barrio Landmarks: Green & White Grocery (/news/2022/3/15/east-austin- barrio-landmarks-green-amp- white-grocery) East Austin Barrio Landmarks: Briones House (/news/barrio-landmarks- briones-house) February 2022 (/news?month=02- 2022) Heartaches by the Numbers, Demos by the Score: The Environmental Impact of Demolition Debris (/news/2022/2/16/heartaches- by-the-numbers-demos-by- the-score-the-environmental- impact-of-demolition-debris) January 2022 (/news? month=01-2022) From National Folk to Mid- century Modern: Austin’s Historic Landmarks of 2021 (/news/2022/1/27/from- national-folk-to-mid-century- modern-austins-historic- landmarks-of-2021) December 2021 (/news?month=12- 2021) Why Austin Needs Local Historic Districts (/news/2021/12/20/why- austin-needs-local-historic- districts) October 2021 (/news? month=10-2021) A 1923 newspaper advertisement for homes in Penn Place ("Classified Ad 1 -- no Title." The Austin Statesman (1921-1973), May 13, 1923) In addition to her successful business sense, Ada was devoted to her family throughout her life. She took pride in the fact that all of her children, including her daughters, went to college. Seven of them graduated from the University of Texas at Austin. Unfortunately, the death of her husband was not the only tragedy that Ada would have to endure in her lifetime. When World War I broke out, three of her sons, Rhesa, Albert, and Eugene went off to war. Tragically only two came back. Eugene perished in an airplane accident during training in Italy in 1918 Penn Field a landing field that Last Days of Dry Creek Cafe accident during training in Italy in 1918. Penn Field, a landing field that was established in South Austin shortly after his death, was named in Eugene’s honor. Her eldest son Robert would also tragically die in a car accident in 1931. Despite her personal tragedies, Ada was well known for the way she brought the community together. Throughout Ada’s life she often entertained at Penn House. Garden parties, political functions, community celebrations, and even flower shows all took place at the Penn House. As the Penn Place community was developed, Ada left room to include a tennis court for residents to use. The court was such a success that players even formed their own tennis club. As the years went by, many of Ada’s children stayed in Austin–some even lived in houses in Penn Place. Portrait of Eugene Penn, circa 1918 (PICB-20896 Austin History Center) By the time that Ada passed away in 1955, the Penn family had grown to over sixty members because Ada had so many grandchildren and great grandchildren. Ada lived to be nearly 90 years old and was buried next to her husband in Oakwood Cemetery in Austin. A few years after Ada’s passing, the West Avenue home she had lived in for over 50 years was sold to the Heritage Society of Austin (which would become Preservation Austin in 2012). The home was in a state of disrepair when it was purchased by the nonprofit in 1958. The Heritage Society sought to restore the building and for it to serve as an example of preservation to the rest of the city. It was at this time that the West Avenue property became known as “Heritage House.” The beautiful home became one of the City of Austin’s first historic landmarks in 1975, and it functioned as the Heritage Society of Austin’s homebase until the organization sold it in 1979. Unfortunately, the Heritage House was not a strong enough example of preservation to keep the Heritage neighborhood exactly as it was. Like the rest of Austin, the Heritage neighborhood has gone through many changes since the early 20th century. Unfortunately, some of the homes Ada designed have been lost over the years. For example, there is a parking lot Last Days of Dry Creek Cafe (/news/2021/10/27/last-days- of-dry-creek-cafe) Preservation Austin Celebrates 61st Annual Preservation Merit Award Winners (/news/2021/10/13/preservation- austin-celebrates-61st-annual- preservation-merit-award- winners) July 2021 (/news? month=07-2021) Reimagining Austin's French Legation (/news/2021/7/8/reimagining- austins-french-legation) Losing a Community Catalyst: The Closure of L.C. Anderson High School (/news/2021/7/8/losing-a- community-catalyst-the- closure-of-lc-anderson-high- school) Separate but Equal in Austin: L.C. Anderson High School (/news/2021/7/8/separate-but- equal-in-austin-lc-anderson- high-school) Call for Nominations: 2021 Preservation Merit Awards (/news/2021/6/29/2021- preservation-merit-awards- call-for-nominations) May 2021 (/news? month=05-2021) Preservation Austin Receives Major Gift from Colin Corgan and Grant Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation (/news/2021/5/25/preservation- austin-receives-major-gift- from-colin-corgan-and-grant- award-from-the-national- trust-for-historic- preservation) on Grandview Street where two of Ada’s homes once stood. Although there Neighborhood History - aren’t protections in place now for the majority of homes in the Heritage area, there could be in the future. In fact, a 2021 historic resource survey of North Central Austin that HHM & Associates completed for the City of Austin noted that the Heritage Neighborhood is likely eligible as a district on the National Register of Historic Places and recommended the area as a City of Austin historic district Sources “Ada C. Penn in the U.S. Find a Grave Index, 1600s-Current..” HeritageQuest. https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/75882356:60525? _phsrc=AST11&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=ada&gsln=penn&ml_rpos =1&queryId=61d3e392a8bf1ac7514a71be6f747895 (https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/75882356:60525? _phsrc=AST11&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=ada&gsln=penn&ml_rpos =1&queryId=61d3e392a8bf1ac7514a71be6f747895) “Ada Penn in the 1900 United States Federal Census.” HeritageQuest. https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/44580641:7602? _phsrc=AST7&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=ada&gsln=penn&ml_rpos= 3&queryId=d250560ed2083a0269a029efef3f43a8 (https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/44580641:7602? _phsrc=AST7&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=ada&gsln=penn&ml_rpos= 3&queryId=d250560ed2083a0269a029efef3f43a8)  “Ada Read in the 1880 United States Federal Census.” HeritageQuest. https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/6569704:6742? _phsrc=AST9&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=ada&gsln=read&ml_rpos= 1&queryId=7eeaf2a380df2eb846f931870bf7e9ce (https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/6569704:6742? _phsrc=AST9&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=ada&gsln=read&ml_rpos= 1&queryId=7eeaf2a380df2eb846f931870bf7e9ce)  Art Leatherwood, “Penn Field,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed May 14, 2022, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/penn-field Rosedale (/news/2021/5/26/neighborhood- history-rosedale) Former Auto Parts Store, Dive Bar and Flop House Transform to C-Boy’s Heart & Soul on Congress (/news/2021/5/12/former- auto-parts-store-dive-bar-and- flop-house-transform-to-c- boys-heart-amp-soul-on- congress) April 2021 (/news? month=04-2021) Michael Butler & the Butler Brick Legacy (/news/2021/4/28/michael- butler-amp-the-butler-brick- legacy) Raised on Music: Growing Up in Austin’s Music Venues (/news/2021/3/30/raised-on- music-growing-up-in-austins- music-venues) March 2021 (/news? month=03-2021) PARD Restoration of Oakwood Cemetery (/news/2021/3/3/pard- restorations-continue-at- oakwood-cemetery-and- oakwood-cemetery-annex) CALL TO ACTION - Historic Districts Threatened! (/news/2021/3/26/call-to- action-historic-districts- threatened) The Meridian Highway (/news/2021/3/17/the- meridian-highway) February 2021 (/news?month=02- 2021) New Life for North Austin’s (https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/penn-field). Published by the Texas State Historical Association Brammer, Bill. "Little Lady Rules Over Big House Contentedly." The Austin Statesman (1921-1973), Jan 13, 1954, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/little-lady-rules-over- big-house-contentedly/docview/1559207143/se-2?accountid=7451.  "Bride-Elect Honored." The Austin American (1914-1973), Jun 05, 1927, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/bride-elect- honored/docview/1616952707/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/bride-elect- honored/docview/1616952707/se-2?accountid=7451). "Building Boom on in Austin: Passage of Bonds Gives Added Impetus." The Austin American (1914-1973), May 27, 1928, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/building-boom-on- austin/docview/1643641388/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/building-boom-on- austin/docview/1643641388/se-2?accountid=7451). "Eugene Penn, Austin Boy, is Killed in Aero Accident in Italy." The Statesman (1916-1921), May 22, 1918, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/eugene-penn-austin- boy-is-killed-aero-accident/docview/1619609276/se-2?accountid=7451. “Heritage Homes Tour.” Heritage Society of Austin, 2006. "Heritage Group Sets Open House." The Austin Statesman (1921-1973), Dec 31, 1971, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/heritage-group-sets- open-house/docview/1514475831/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/heritage-group-sets- open-house/docview/1514475831/se-2?accountid=7451). HHM & Associates, Inc. “City of Austin: Historic Building Survey Report for North Central Austin. West Campus, North University, Heritage, Bryker Woods, and North Hyde Park.” 2021. 133-145. https://www austintexas gov/sites/default/files/files/Housing %26 Plannin New Life for North Austin s Zimmerman House (/news/2021/2/3/new-life-for- north-austins-zimmerman- house) Whose History? Celebrating Cultural Heritage by Translating Community History (/news/2021/2/4/whose- history-celebrating-cultural- heritage-by-translating- community-history) Rosewood Park: A Historic Icon of Austin’s East Side (/news/2021/2/3/rosewood- park-a-historic-icon-of- austins-east-side) January 2021 (/news? month=01-2021) Republic Square: the Heart of Austin's Mexico (/news/2021/1/27/republic- square-the-heart-of-austins- mexico) Austin’s Vibrant Mural Culture Instills Sense of Community in the Urban Landscape (/news/2021/1/14/austins- vibrant-mural-culture-instills- sense-of-community-in-the- urban-landscape) Rogers Washington Holy Cross - Austin’s Newest Local Historic District (/news/2021/1/12/rogers- washington-holy-cross- austins-newest-local-historic- district) October 2020 (/news? month=10-2020) Preservation Austin Celebrates 60 Years Of Preservation Merit Award Winners (/news/2020/preservation- merit-award-winners) https://www.austintexas.gov/sites/default/files/files/Housing_%26_Plannin g/Historic%20Preservation/Historic%20Surveys/2021_NCA_WestCampus _NUni_Heritage_BrykerWoods_NHydePark/_Historic-Bldg- Survey_North-Central-Austin_FINAL_2021-01-08.pdf (https://www.austintexas.gov/sites/default/files/files/Housing_%26_Plannin g/Historic%20Preservation/Historic%20Surveys/2021_NCA_WestCampus _NUni_Heritage_BrykerWoods_NHydePark/_Historic-Bldg- Survey_North-Central-Austin_FINAL_2021-01-08.pdf) "The Hobby Horse." The Austin American (1914-1973), Oct 07, 1928, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/hobby- horse/docview/1643656932/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/hobby- horse/docview/1643656932/se-2?accountid=7451) Kendall, Elizabeth A. "Shrubs are Necessary for Blooms." The Austin American (1914-1973), Jul 30, 1933, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/shrubs-are-necessary- blooms/docview/1611380390/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/shrubs-are-necessary- blooms/docview/1611380390/se-2?accountid=7451). "Mother is Enthroned for Today." The Austin American (1914-1973), May 11, 1930, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/mother-is-enthroned- today/docview/1611535285/se-2?accountid=7451 "Mrs Ada Penn to Build $4,000 Residence." The Austin American (1914- 1973), May 27, 1928,https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/claud-traweek- awarded-contract-harrell-home/docview/1643641649/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/claud-traweek- awarded-contract-harrell-home/docview/1643641649/se-2? accountid=7451). "Mrs. Penn Succumbs at Home." The Austin American (1914-1973), Jun 26, 1955, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/mrs-penn-succumbs- at-home/docview/1611052037/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/mrs-penn-succumbs- at home/docview/1611052037/se 2?accountid 7451) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Vanessa Fuentes (District 2) (/news/donnahoward/2020- 6kp27-6zbyf-jmj95-p6x5s- c3wh3-6jlrt-m9mbl) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - David Chincanchan (District 2) (/news/david-chincanchan) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Ramesses Setepenre II (District 4) (/news/ramesses-setepenre) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Pooja Sethi (District 10) (/news/pooja- sethi) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Jimmy Flannigan (District 6) (/news/jimmy-flannigan) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Alison Alter (District 10) (/news/alison- alter) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Leslie Pool (District 7) (/news/leslie- pool) City Council Candidates Questionnaire - Greg Casar (District 4) (/news/greg-casar) September 2020 (/news?month=09- 2020) 2020 Texas Candidates Questionnaire - Donna Howard (/news/donnahoward/2020) 2020 Texas Candidates Questionnaire - Eddie Rodriguez (/news/eddierodriguez/2020) 2020 Texas Candidates Questionnaire - Gina Hinojosa (/news/ginahinojosa/2020) 2020 T C did at-home/docview/1611052037/se-2?accountid=7451) . “Past Beauties Restored.” The Austin Statesman (1921-1973), October 29, 1961. "Penn Home Is Zinnia Show Setting." The Austin Statesman (1921-1973), Jun 28, 1933, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/penn-home-is-zinnia- show-setting/docview/1610381576/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/penn-home-is-zinnia- show-setting/docview/1610381576/se-2?accountid=7451). "Penn Family Upset Home may be Sold by Heritage Group." The Austin American Statesman (1973-1980), Aug 16, 1975, Evening ed., https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/penn-family-upset- home-may-be-sold-heritage-group/docview/1500154539/se-2? accountid=7451. “R L Penn in the Texas, U.S., Wills and Probate Records, 1833-1974.” HeritageQuest. https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/1974310:2115? _phsrc=AST23&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=robert&gsln=penn&ml_rp os=1&queryId=7c3a87149bf2c7cd8211c5b5000151aa (https://www.ancestryheritagequest.com/discoveryui- content/view/1974310:2115? _phsrc=AST23&_phstart=successSource&gsfn=robert&gsln=penn&ml_rp os=1&queryId=7c3a87149bf2c7cd8211c5b5000151aa) Wolff, Gail. "Pioneer Spirit Still Alive in Texas." The Austin American (1914-1973), Mar 11, 1945, https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/pioneer-spirit-still- alive-texas/docview/1611601359/se-2?accountid=7451 (https://atxlibrary.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://www.proquest.com/historical-newspapers/pioneer-spirit-still- alive-texas/docview/1611601359/se-2?accountid=7451) 2020 Texas Candidates Questionnaire - Mike Guevara (/news/mikeguevara/2020) August 2020 (/news? month=08-2020) Membership Spotlight: Sustaining in Place with Cara Bertron (/news/2020/8/21/member- spotlight) July 2020 (/news? month=07-2020) Historic Landmark Commission's Agenda for Monday, July 27 - Preservation Austin Advocacy (/news/2020/7/24/historic- landmark-commissions- monday-july-27-agenda- preservation-austin-advocacy) 2020 Virtual Homes Tour Premiers August 13 (/news/2020/7/6/2020-homes- tour-will-be-virtual-event- premiering-august-13) Call For Nominations: 2020 Preservation Merit Awards  (/news/2020/6/30/call-for- nominations-2020- preservation-merit- awardsnbsp) June 2020 (/news? month=06-2020) Texas State Senate District 14 Questionnaire - Eddie Rodriguez (/news/2020/6/18/texas-state- senate-district-14- questionnaire-eddie- rodriguez) Preservation Austin is indebted to the Fowler Family Foundation for supporting this work and for making this research possible. 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If you enjoy this content and would like to support us in this work, become a member HERE (https://www.preservationaustin.org/join-renew).  2 Likes  Share Newer Post Older Post Call for Nominations: 2022 Issues in Preservation: LGBTQIA Preservation Merit Awards Spaces and a Fight for Austin's (/news/2022/6/27/call-for- Soul (/news/2022/6/24/issues-in- nominations-2022-preservation- preservation-lgbtq-bars-and-a- merit-awards) fight-for-austins-soul) Texas State Senate District 14 Questionnaire - Sarah Eckhardt (/news/2020/6/16/texas-state- senate-district-14- questionnaire-sarah-eckhardt) Texas State Senate District 14 Questionnaire - Jeff Ridgeway (/news/2020/6/16/texas-state- senate-district-14- questionnaire-jeff-ridgeway) Membership Spotlight: Sustaining in Place with Rebekah Dobrasko (/news/2020/6/1/9zl4te36zc5kojpse9 May 2020 (/news? month=05-2020) Preservation Austin Advocacy Roundup: Red River Cultural District (/news/2020/5/28/preservation- austin-advocacy-roundup-red- river-cultural-district) Membership Spotlight: Sustaining in Place (/news/2020/5/22/sustaining- in-place) Preservation Austin Advocacy Roundup: Economic Recovery Resources (/news/2020/5/28/preservation- austin-advocacy-roundup- economic-recovery- resources) April 2020 (/news? month=04-2020) Preservation Austin Advocacy Roundup: CARES Act and Historic Preservation Legislation (/news/2020/4/30/preservation- austin-advocacy-roundup- cares-act-and-historic- preservation-legislation) Reminder: Historic Tax Exemption Form Due April 30 The photographs of Russell Lee reveal an exceptional trust on both sides of the lens austinchronicle.com/arts/2003-08-29/a-mutual-respect/ Tenant purchase clients at home, Hidalgo County, Texas, February 1939 Soda jerker flipping ice cream into malted milk shakes, Corpus Christi, Texas, February 1939 I wish I had known Russell Lee in the Sixties, when he taught photography at the University of Texas at Austin, or afterward, when Garry Winogrand took over for him, leaving the older man more time to gather with friends for a round or two of drinks and conversation. Sadly, Lee and I never met, but by all accounts, if I'd had the good fortune to visit the West Avenue home he shared with his wife Jean, he would have looked at me with those friendly eyes, flashed a smile, and welcomed me inside as he had so many others. Prior to seeing "Russell Lee: A Centenary Exhibition," currently at the Wittliff Gallery of Southwestern & Mexican 1/8 Photography in San Marcos, I couldn't have identified specific images that he produced, but I was certainly aware of Lee's name and reputation, as both a photographer and a mentor for younger artists. Saturday night in a saloon, Craigville, Minn., September 1937 Russell Lee belonged to that extraordinary team of photographers that traversed the United States during the 1930s and early 1940s taking pictures for the Farm Security Administration. Working under the guidance of FSA Historical Section Director Roy Stryker, Lee, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Carl Mydans, and Arthur Rothstein, among others, documented the desperation and subsequent recovery of America from the travails of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl era. With the financial support of the government -- Lee was paid $2,600 per year with a $5 per diem -- and the help of Stryker, who circulated their work to the widest possible audience, they tweaked the conscience of the country and later provided proof that it was on the rebound. Indeed, the images they captured were so vivid that they fashioned our collective visual memory of that period in history, argues Mary Jane Appel in her catalog essay for the Wittliff Gallery exhibition. Despite the photographs' origins as propaganda -- "Put on the syrup and white clouds, and play on the sentiment," wrote Stryker to Lee -- many of them eventually made their way into museums and galleries, where people classified them as "art." But not Russell Lee. "He didn't consider prints should be precious objects," says Steve Clark, director of Stephen L. Clark Gallery and an acquaintance of Lee's. "His interest wasn't making a great picture," says screenwriter and photography collector Bill Wittliff. "It was the plight of these people." 2/8 Fortuneteller, state fair, Donaldsonville, La., October 1938 Perhaps Lee's empathy for others stemmed from his own life experience. In 1913, when he was 10 years old, Lee watched as a car struck his mother on a rain-soaked street in Ottawa, Ill., where they lived. She died shortly thereafter, leaving the boy's grandparents to care for him and providing a substantial inheritance for his future. A number of different guardians wound up watching over the lad until he came of age, among them his great-uncle Milton Pope, who not only invested and added to his nephew's inheritance, securing the young man's financial future for life, but who seems to have been this mentor's mentor. Appel suggests that it was this reportedly jovial relation, possessed of "sterling qualities of character," who taught Lee by example not to flaunt his good fortune. Even today, the accomplished photographer's humility is legendary. Negro crossing himself and praying over grave of relative in cemetery, All Saints' Day, New Roads, La., November 1938 Lee came to his vocation in a somewhat circuitous manner. He worked first in chemical engineering, his field of study in college. Then, in 1927, two years after he married his first wife Doris, he resigned his position with a company that made composition roofing and took 3/8 up painting. While he was a reasonably adept draftsman -- as can be seen in his last canvas, on display in the Wittliff Gallery -- Lee laid down his brushes forever after he bought his first camera (a 35 mm Contax, also on display) at the suggestion of his artist-friend Ben Shahn. Lee's background in science gave him a leg up in mixing developing chemicals, which enhanced his negatives and informed his shooting strategies as well; he took comprehensive notes over time with the camera, creating a series of images of each subject rather than attempting to distill the one artful pose. It was as if he were dissecting the scene so as to explain each detail. Hands of Mrs. Andrew Ostermeyer, wife of a homesteader, Miller Township, Woodbury County, Iowa, 1936 Lee's first photographs documented the area around Woodstock, N.Y., where he and Doris spent summers in the Woodstock Art Colony, and New York City during the winter of 1935- 1936. From the beginning, his pictures depicted the downtrodden: people forced to sell their possessions at auction and those in unemployment lines. In Pennsylvania, he photographed bootleg coal mines. During this time he acquired an agent and began shooting for publications such as Collier's and American Magazine. In 1936, mining photographs in hand, he met with Roy Stryker, who gave him a temporary assignment documenting a homestead housing project in New Jersey. Stryker liked the results so much that he brought Lee onto the FSA project full time, launching the photographer on one of the most productive and significant periods of his career. 4/8 Migrant boy combing his hair at his home near Muskogee, Okla., July 1939 Lee spent the next six years traveling back and forth across the country to record everything from oil towns in Texas to tenements in the Bronx, lumber towns in the Pacific Northwest to the homesteading community of Pie Town, N.M., where he produced some of his most well- known images. From 1939 onward, he was accompanied on these trips by his second wife, Dallas journalist Jean Smith, who employed her skills as a reporter to interview his photographic subjects, write captions for the pictures, and keep field notes which were used to identify the negatives of his pictures as they were developed. (At first, Lee developed film himself on the road, but after a tainted batch of developer compromised some of his negatives, he sent the film to Washington for processing and the proofing.) Roustabouts during a lull in painting of derrick. Seminole Oil Field, Okla., August 1939 5/8 Lee became not only one of the agency's most well-traveled and prolific photographers but one of its most innovative as well. His use of a multiple flash enabled Lee to depart from the exterior shots common to the photos of that period and to move inside, capturing the essence of whole rooms -- and their inhabitants' lives -- in exquisite detail. In one of his signature images, that of a couple listening to the radio in Hidalgo County, Texas, in 1939, he is able to render the pattern of the woman's hairnet, the lace curtains, the texture of the tapestry hanging over the console radio, and the man's tattered socks with equal clarity. Every bit of information matters. Music lesson in grade school, San Augustine, Tex. April, 1939 But perhaps Lee's most amazing accomplishment was his ability to repeatedly insert himself into new locales, to discern the times and places which would confer maximum information about that place, and then to gain acceptance of the community so that he could be present with his camera. People trusted Russell Lee. As Bill Wittliff puts it, his subjects came to feel, "I don't think this guy will lie about me." Ave Bonar, another photographer who considers Lee a mentor, explains it this way: "He gave me an appreciation for respecting people when photographing them." And Lee's subjects respected him in return. With rare exceptions, the working folks Lee photographed do not stare warily back at his camera. Instead, the viewer stands undisturbed behind the saloon bar in Craigville, Minn., as patrons swill their beer. (The comfortable ambience of this particular photo attracted the attention of Cheers producers, who used it -- without attribution to Lee -- every week in the opening sequence of the popular TV show.) In another of his better-known photos, a sharecropper's boy combs his hair in front of a cracked mirror in Muskogee, Okla., giving no apparent thought to who might be looking over his shoulder. Lee presented himself to these strangers as an old acquaintance who had come to sit a spell and visit, which is to say that he and his camera were quickly taken for granted. "You always feel like he's one of the subjects in his pictures," says Wittliff. 6/8 The World War II years saw the FSA project shifted to the Office of War Information, and not long after that Lee joined the Overseas Technical Unit of the Air Transport Command, where he logged a million miles photographing the routes and airfields flown by the ATC. After the war, he returned to the coal mines to document health and safety conditions for the Department of the Interior, a project for which he shot more than 4,000 images over seven months. In 1947, Russell and Jean Lee settled in Austin, where Russell continued his social documentary work -- recording everything from the lives of Spanish-speaking Texans to conditions at state mental institutions -- while taking assignments from corporations such as Standard Oil, Aramco, and Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp. In 1965, following a retrospective exhibition of his work, Russell Lee was hired as the first instructor of photography in the art department at UT. The change led Russ, as his friends routinely call him, to slow the rigorous pace of his own picture-taking and concentrate instead on encouraging others, finding positive things to say about their work. He did that for nine years, but even after retiring from the faculty in 1973, Russell Lee kept nurturing those around him. "Just by being there, he inspired," says Bill Wittliff who, along with a string of other now-famous Austin practitioners in the arts -- Ave Bonar, Jimmy Jalapeeno, Jim Bones, Rick Williams -- considers the photographer an important influence. They compare him to John Graves. Lee also liked to fly-fish and to "sneak-buy" fishing equipment, according to Wittliff who, when he was helping Jean clean out the studio after her husband's death, discovered a closet full of new and barely touched rods and lures. In fact, to hear his friends tell it, buying and hoarding fishing equipment was the man's only vice, his passion for people his greatest virtue. His photographs artfully testify to Lee's greatest achievement, which was the caring example he set by welcoming others into his life and by quietly and sympathetically inserting himself into the lives of others. To sit in his presence -- whether eating barbecue, fly-fishing, or talking about photography -- was the best way to experience the complete range of his talent. The current exhibition goes a long way toward re-creating that experience. On Sept. 18, from 7 to 9pm, the Wittliff Gallery will host a public reception during which photographer Alan Pogue will present a slide show and talk about Russell Lee's influence on his own documentary work. Ann Mundy's video, which runs continuously in the gallery, and assorted memorabilia in display cases provide additional insight into the photographer's life and times. The exhibition catalog, The Man Who Made America's Portrait: Russell Werner Lee, 1903-1986, with an essay by Appel, a foreword by Todd, and more than 30 photographs, concentrates on Lee's FSA years. "Russell Lee: A Centenary Exhibition" runs through Oct. 12 at the Wittliff Gallery of Southwestern & Mexican Photography, Alkek Library on the Texas State University campus, 7/8 San Marcos. For more information, call 512/245-2313 or visit www.library.swt.edu/swwc/wg/exhibits/ default.html. 8/8 History of Building Altera3ons – 3110 West Avenue The Jean and Russell Lee House is in a condi2on similar to its original form, with some moderniza2on taking place over 2me. At some point, likely around 1984-5, an elevator was added at the southeast corner of the house to allow an infirm Russell Lee access to the upper floor. In 1994, when Robin Abrams purchased the house, some upda2ng of the mechanical systems took place, primarily adding hea2ng and air condi2oning, and moderate interior refinishing (sanding original floors, pain2ng, upgrading kitchen and some bathroom fixtures). The non- func2oning elevator was removed and converted to a closet on the upper floor and a secondary entry on the ground floor. In 2004, the adjacent house (3108 West Avenue) underwent a major renova2on and enlargement, which resulted in a dras2c leap in property valua2on at 3110. Property taxes became so burdensome, it was necessary to share the burden through crea2on of rental accommoda2on, which is now evident at the rear and sides of the house. Throughout its history 3110 has accommodated renters, and in some cases mul2ple families. Ms. Abrams, the owner, is an architect who mindfully designed the altera2ons so that it would be possible at any point to return to a single-family house. All changes to the exterior of the house were purposefully undertaken to be deferen2al to the original character. The front eleva2on was leU untouched. All original features of the house (entry hall, central stair, fireplace, large sliding doors between the living and dining rooms and the entry foyer, kitchen beadboard, and wood floors – except an area in the entry hall where an underfloor gas heater had caused a small fire towards the end of Mrs. Lee’s 2me in the house – here the wood floor was replaced with salvaged, matching floorboards) remain intact, while the house was subdivided into two units. A ground floor apartment was created with its entry at the base of the elevator shaU, extending as a single story at the rear of the house. A second unit was created taking up the en2re second story. At this level, the rooms are exactly as constructed, with minimal remodeling to the original bathrooms. In 2013 covered parking space and a storage building were added at the rear of the property. Exhibition Features Russell Lee Photographs humanitiestexas.org/news/articles/exhibition-features-russell-lee-photographs Humanities Texas April 2008 Beginning in August 2008, Humanities Texas will circulate "Russell Lee Photographs," an exhibition by the Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin. This traveling exhibition of photographs by renowned documentary photographer Russell Lee draws from the magnificent collection that he donated to the Center just prior to his death in 1986. The exhibition offers a rare glimpse into the remarkably accomplished images he produced in 1935 and 1936, when he first took up a camera, and goes on to highlight the vast body of important work that Lee produced from 1947, when he settled in Texas, through 1977. The following is excerpted from "'There was a job to do': The Photographic Career of Russell Lee," by J. B. Colson, the introduction to the book Russell Lee Photographs: Images from the Russell Lee Photograph Collection at the Center for American History (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007). Fridays with Russell Lee meant good times. We would arrive about eleven thirty and head for the large dining room table with its array of fine scotch. His wife, Jean, would sometimes join us briefly and then disappear. As we chatted in the living room, Jean's two miniature poodles would jump around on the furniture in their ribbons and freshly painted nails. Soon we headed out to eat, usually for barbecue, stopping for a six-pack on the way (beer in the car was legal then). Russ's favorite place was Mueller's in Taylor, about an hour away by Texas country roads. He liked his brisket moist, with a longneck beer. After Mueller's we'd go to a dark old bar by Taylor's railroad tracks for a sausage wrap and a beer and then to Pflugerville for more beer and conversation. Regulars included Carl Berquist, artist, architecture professor, and raconteur; Mike Murphy, a photo director for the state; and Larry Schaaf and me, both photojournalism teachers. Sometimes there were others we knew, and occasionally a visitor would come to see the famous Russell Lee. Conversations were not dominated by photography. We were just hanging out, enjoying each other's company. But sometimes in the living room Russ would demonstrate how he used his 35 mm camera. He was all over the place, exploring his subject. Or he would be quietly standing with camera held low until he saw the moment; then the camera would rise and return in what seemed to be one graceful movement, passing by his eye as he clicked. If you were the subject, you had to be looking at him at the right 1/3 second to know you'd been photographed. Thus we learned how Russell Lee got some of the finest candids in the history of photography. We saw what an acute and patient observer he was, and how he could make strangers feel relaxed and open because they felt he was sincerely interested in who they were. Before he ever used a camera seriously, Russell Lee was well prepared for a career in photography. His youth, with extremes of good and bad fortune, made him into a charismatic yet disciplined person who could charm strangers and work to exhaustion. His birthright ensured freedom from financial worry. His formal education trained him in the sciences, chemistry in particular. His immersion in the visual arts through his marriage to artist Doris Emerick refined both his aesthetic and his social sensibilities. And the Great Depression of the 1930s that devastated the national economy and so many lives was, for Lee, a great opportunity. Just as he was finishing his personal program of basic photographic training, he was able to join the Historical Section of the Resettlement Administration (later renamed the Farm Security Administration), a federal program to help the rural poor. The small group of photographers who worked there for director Roy Stryker included Dorothea Lange and Walker Evans, two of the most respected names in the history of photography. Their work for the government has become one of history's best-known and most useful photographic collections. Russell Lee produced more of that work than any other photographer before going on to a long but less well-known career as photographer and teacher. Near the end of his life, as he battled terminal cancer, Lee made careful plans for his life's work. He had invited me to review his files with him and discuss archiving them, and I had asked Dr. Julianne Newton, then also teaching photography at the University of Texas, to work with us. Lee and his wife, Jean, donated his files of negatives, contacts, prints, and associated notes, including his earliest photography and most of what he did after 1947, to the Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin. The images in this archive of more than 27,000 negatives and 3,500 prints, like Lee's best work for the FSA, are elegant and compelling visual insights into the human condition. Many of them are unknown to the public and have yet to receive the attention and appreciation they deserve. Click the following links for more information on Russell Lee's photographs: the traveling exhibition, which will be available for rental beginning in August 2008. the Russell Lee Photograph Collection and the online exhibition of Lee's photographs. the book Russell Lee Photographs: Images from the Russell Lee Photograph Collection at the Center for American History, published by University of Texas Press. 2/3 Russell Lee, Shoeshine Boy, San Antonio, Texas, 1949. Russell Lee Photograph Collection, Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin. 3/3 Power & Light: Russell Lee's Coal Survey museum.archives.gov/power-and-light-russell-lee-coal-survey "The Sergent family on their front porch. P V & K Coal Company, Clover Gap Mine, Lejunior, Harlan County, Kentucky." View in National Archives Catalog Power & Light: Russell Lee's Coal Survey is an exhibition of photographs of coal communities by American documentary photographer Russell Lee. These images tell the story of laborers who helped build the nation, of a moment when the government took stock of their health and safety, and of a photographer who recognized their humanity. About the Exhibit Power & Light is free and open to the public. The exhibition features more than 200 of Russell Lee’s photographs of coal miners and their families in the form of large-scale prints, projections, and digital interactives from a nationwide survey of housing and medical and community facilities of bituminous coal mining communities. The survey was conducted by 1/27 Navy personnel in 1946 as part of a strike-ending agreement negotiated between the Department of the Interior and the United Mine Workers of America. The full series of photographs, which numbers in the thousands, can only be found in the holdings of the National Archives. These images document inhumane living and working conditions but also depict the joy, strength, and resilience of the miners' families and communities. Note: All photograph captions are original, as provided by the photographer. Unless otherwise noted, the images are in the holdings of the National Archives, Records of the Solid Fuels Administration for War. I'm taking pictures of the history of today. —Russell Lee Power & Light features Russell Lee’s 1946 coal survey photographs of miners in their homes, mines, and communities. Russell Lee: Home 2/27 “Miners' wives and children on the front porch of a typical, fifty year old house. Kentucky Straight Creek Coal Company, Belva Mine, abandoned after explosion [in] Dec. 1945, Four Mile, Bell County, Kentucky, September 4, 1946.” (Original Caption) 3/27 “There are ten children in the Lawson Mayo family, the older taking care of the youngest ones. Three of the daughters are now attending high school in Mullens and have part time jobs during summer months. Mullens Smokeless Coal Company, Mullens Mine, Harmco, 4/27 Wyoming County, West Virginia, August 23, 1946.” (Original Caption) View in National Archives Catalog “Mrs. Edna Lingar getting wash water from dirty stream; stock wade this stream, privies drain into it, garbage decay in it, a dead animal was in the stream about fifteen feet above where she was getting water. Kentucky Straight Creek Coal Company, Belva, Mine, abandoned after explosion, Four Mile, Bell County, Kentucky, September 4, 1946.” (Original Caption) 5/27 “The only houses with running water inside in this camp are those in which their tennants [sic] have made the installations at no expense to the company. Gilliam Coal and Coke Company, Gilliam Mine, Gilliam, McDowell County, West Virginia, August 13, 1946.” (Original Caption) 6/27 “Mrs. John Whitehead, wife of miner, and two of her children (or grandchildren) in the kitchen of her three room house. Mr. and Mrs. John Whitehead, their six children and six grandchildren live here. This house, built on company owned land was built by Mr. Whitehead's half brother at no expense for materials or labor to the company; the builder (half brother) was to receive the use of the house rent-free for three years and at the end of this period the ownership of the house would revert to the company. The brother moved away at the end of one year, receiving no cash settlement from the company. The house now rents for $6 monthly. It has no running water, no electricity, access is over a mountain trail; there are three rooms. Coleman Fuel Company, Red Bird Mine, Field, Bell County, Kentucky, August 31, 1946.” (Original Caption) Lee's photographs of miners at home reflect his respect for their individuality and resourcefulness, his fascination with families, and his meticulous attention to the details of everyday life. 7/27 Russell Lee: Mines 8/27 “Changing shifts at the mine portal in the afternoon. Inland Steel Company, Wheelwright #1 & 2 Mines, Wheelwright, Floyd County, Kentucky, September 23, 1946.” (Original Caption) 9/27 “James Robert Howard has gotten his safety lamp at lamp house. Of the 232 employees at this mine, 60% are Negroes. Gilliam Coal and Coke Company, Gilliam Mine, Gilliam, McDowell County, West Virginia, August 13, 1946.” (Original Caption) 10/27 “Women pick foreign matter out of coal as it is carried on conveyor thru tipple. Union Pacific Coal Company, Stansbury Mine, Rock Springs, Sweetwater County, Wyoming, July 10, 1946.” (Original Caption) 11/27 “Harry Fain, second from right, seated in shuttle car on mantrip before going underground. Inland Steel Company, Wheelwright #1 & 2 Mines. Wheelwright, Floyd County, Kentucky, September 24, 1946.” (Original Caption) 12/27 “Miners bring in their checks and see the sign that there is no Saturday work. P V & K Coal Company, Clover Gap Mine, Lejunior, Harlan County, Kentucky, September 13, 1946.” (Original Caption) Russell Lee was attentive to miners’ issues, documenting deductions to their pay, lost work days, perilous conditions, and the union meetings where they fought for a better deal. 13/27 Russell Lee: Community 14/27 “Young couple dancing at VFW dance on occasion of Fourth of July celebration. Price, Carbon County, Utah, July 3, 1946.” (Original Caption) 15/27 “Some of the members of the baseball team of Exeter-Warwick Mines. Kingston Pocahontas Coal Company, Exeter Mine, Welch, McDowell County, West Virginia, August 10, 1946.” (Original Caption) 16/27 “Children of miner living in company housing project. Note the homemade baby buggy made of a powder box. Union Pacific Coal Company, Reliance Mine, Reliance, Sweetwater County, Wyoming, August 10, 1946.” (Original Caption) 17/27 “Local UMWA union meeting is held on Sunday morning in schoolhouse. Inland Steel Company, Wheelwright #1 & 2 Mines, Wheelwright, Floyd County, Kentucky, September 22, 1946.” (Original Caption) 18/27 “Children of miners on the fence in front of the Howard house. Gilliam Coal and Coke Company, Gilliam Mine, Gilliam, McDowell County, West Virginia, August 13, 1946.” (Original Caption) To fulfill the mandate of the survey, Lee photographed sanitary, medical, and recreational facilities and services. But he also captured moments of joy and connection that characterized the strong community bonds forged by the miners. 19/27 Russell W. Lee (with camera in hand), ca 1942–45. Image courtesy of The Wittliff Collections / Texas State University About Russell Lee: Russell Werner Lee (1903–86) was born in Ottawa, Illinois. Originally trained as an engineer, he was methodical in his work, but approached his subjects with warmth and respect. The quiet Midwesterner put people at ease, enabling him to capture scenes of surprising intimacy. Many of his photographs reveal worlds through small details—keepsakes on the mantel, lined and calloused hands. What may be most distinctive about these images is their reflection of the photographer’s compassion for his subjects. Despite their plight, it is their strength, dignity, and humanity that strike the viewer. If you recognize Lee’s photos—but not his name—you’re not alone. Although the coal survey photos represent some of Lee’s finest work, his best-known photographs are from an earlier project. Lee was one of several photographers hired by the federal government in the 1930s to document the toll of the Great Depression and drought on rural Americans. While he worked alongside famous colleagues including Walker Evans and Dorothea Lange, Lee eschewed celebrity. His aim was to inspire social change, believing visual evidence of struggle and hardship could generate support for reforms. 20/27 Russell Lee: Photographs 21/27 “Saturday night in a saloon. Craigville, Minnesota, 1937.” (Original Caption) Image courtesy of the Library of Congress 22/27 “Tenant purchase clients at home. Hidalgo County, Texas, 1939.” (Original Caption) Image courtesy of the Library of Congress 23/27 “Negro drinking at ‘Colored’ water cooler in streetcar terminal. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1939.” (Original Caption) Image courtesy of the Library of Congress 24/27 “Saying grace before the barbeque dinner at the Pie Town, New Mexico Fair, 1940” (Original Caption) Image courtesy of the Library of Congress 25/27 “Filling station and garage at Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940.” (Original Caption) Image courtesy of the Library of Congress 26/27 “Faro and Doris Caudill, homesteaders, Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940” (Original Caption) Image courtesy of the Library of Congress Exhibit Credits: Power & Light: Russell Lee’s Coal Survey is made possible in part by the National Archives Foundation through the generous support of The Mars Family & Mars, Incorporated and Anonymous. 27/27 Lee, Russell Werner tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/lee-russell-werner LEE, RUSSELL WERNER (1903–1986). Russell Werner Lee, photographer, son of Burton and Adeline (Werner) Lee, was born in Ottawa, Illinois, on July 21, 1903. His parents were divorced when he was five, and his mother was killed in an accident when he was ten. He attended Culver Military Academy, Culver, Indiana, and graduated from Lehigh University with a degree in chemical engineering. Marriage in 1927 to Doris Emrick, a talented painter who later achieved considerable success under her married name, Doris Lee, brought him in contact with the world of serious art, in which he began photography. The Great Depression provided him the opportunity to develop his unique documentary style. From 1931 to 1936 Lee spent summers in the Woodstock Art Colony. He studied painting at the Art Students League in New York before he bought his first camera in 1935 for use as a drawing aid. Lee was best known for his photographs taken for the United States Farm Security Administration between 1936 and 1942. Probably that agency's most prolific photographer, he was described by Roy Stryker, director of the photographic project, as a "taxonomist with a camera" because he dissected the visual aspects of any social situation in which he found himself. His use of direct flash allowed him to take relatively candid and very detailed interior shots. This became his trademark during his years with the FSA. Lee's social-documentary photographs were used by the agency to explain its work to the general public and to record the environment in which it worked. His first marriage ended in divorce in 1938. In 1939 he married Jean Smith, a journalist from Dallas, who often traveled with him and wrote captions for his photographs and short essays on social scenes that Lee captured. Neither of his marriages produced children. His years with the FSA were followed by war service in the Air Transport Command. During World War II he flew more than a million miles and photographed the approaches to every airfield used by the ATC in its worldwide effort to supply United States and Allied troops. The photographs were used in pilot briefings and were considered of utmost importance for inexperienced pilots approaching unfamiliar airfields on radio silence. For his distinguished service Lee received the Air Medal. After the war the Lees moved to Austin, where Lee remained active as a photographer. He was a friend of such prominent Texans as J. Frank Dobie and Ralph Yarborough. In 1946 and 1947 he conducted an intensive photographic survey of coal-mining regions of the United States for the United States Department of the Interior. Under the direction of Rear Admiral Joel T. Boone, he made more than 4,000 photographs of living and working conditions among miners, many of which were published in A Medical Survey of the Bituminous Coal Industry in 1947 and helped to bring about changes in work rules and health requirements in the mining industry. In addition to his government work, Lee took 1/2 assignments from the Standard Oil Company and Fortune during the late 1940s and early 1950s. He also spent considerable time photographing political and social situations in Texas; he made, for instance, a large series on Spanish-speaking people, a series on mental institutions, and many photographs of political events. He and Jean also taught short seminars in photojournalism at the University of Missouri during this time, thus helping to establish one of the most successful programs in photojournalism in the country. In 1960 Lee visited Italy to photograph at the behest of University of Texas professor of classics William Arrowsmith. There he took about 4,000 photographs, a number of which were used in Arrowsmith's "The Image of Italy," published in the Texas Quarterly (September 1961). In 1965 the University of Texas asked Lee to give a one-man exhibition in the art department; subsequently, the university asked him to establish a photography program in the department. From 1965 to 1973 Lee taught photography at UT and influenced several hundred students. His photographs were widely exhibited throughout his career. Solo exhibitions of his work were organized by the Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery at the University of Texas in Austin (1965, 1987); the Tolson Institute, Lexington, Kentucky (1978); the International Museum of Photography, Rochester, New York (1979); and the Amarillo Art Center (1986). Collections of his work are housed in the Library of Congress and the National Archives in Washington, the University of Louisville in Kentucky, and the Barker Texas History Center in Austin. Examples of his work are included in the collections of the Amarillo Art Center; the Amon Carter Museum of Art, Fort Worth; the Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock; Rice University Art Collection, Houston; the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; the San Antonio Museum Association; the Museum of Modern Art, New York City; and the International Museum of Photography, Rochester, New York. After his retirement in 1973, Lee and his wife lived quietly in Austin, working with students and scholars who were interested in photography. He died on August 28, 1986. Austin American-Statesman, August 29, 1986. Gregory Curtis, "Making the Best of It," Texas Monthly, September 1976. F. Jack Hurley, Russell Lee: Photographer (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Morgan and Morgan, 1978). Russell Lee, FSA Photographs of Chamisal and Penasco, New Mexico (Santa Fe: Ancient City Press, 1985). Vertical Files, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin. 2/2 Russell and Jean Lee House 3110 West Avenue 6310 Wilhelmina Delco Dr, Austin, Texas 78752 Adrian.Moreno2@austintexas.gov March 5, 2024 To: Adrian Moreno Customer Service Rep Sr, Customer Experience Unit City of Austin Development Services Department From: Jolene Kiolbassa, President Heritage Neighborhood Association Re: Zoning Case C14H-2024-0016 Dear Mr. Moreno: At a meeting on Monday, March 4 2024, the Heritage Neighborhood Association voted unanimously to support historic landmark status for the Russell and Jean Lee House, 3110 West Avenue. Please let me know if you have any questions or need further information. Sincerely, Jolene Kiolbassa, President Heritage Neighborhood Association